The aim of this chapter is to highlight potential links between leptin and the lipid metabolism in fish, within the context of current research interests of the fish nutrition amd aquaculture sector. In fact, it is envisaged that the whole aquacuture and fish biology sector will significantly benefit from an increased knowledge of such a powerful hormone, and it is believed this will contribute in transforming current aquaculture industry into an environmental and economical means of producing nourishing fish and seafood for the growing global population. The context is framed by a brief introduction on the current challenges in aquaculture and fish nutrition, and susequently the chapter focuses on the potential roles of leptin on voluntary food intake and lipid digestion and absorption in fish. Following this, the possible roles of leptin on lipid deposition and utilisation and the fatty acid metabolism in fish are presented and discussed. Eventually the possible interrelationships between dietary lipids and leptin are analysed underlining how knowledge gained from human nutrition could be extremely useful to tentatively address current constraints and obstacles found in the aquaculture nutrition sector. The present analysis suggests that we are likely only able to see the tip of the iceberg, and great and significant breakthrough discoveries will be likely by fathoming such fascinating area of research.
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