Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-mo randomized controlled trial

Kukuljan, Sonja, Nowson, Caryl A., Sanders, Kerrie and Daly, Robin M. 2009, Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-mo randomized controlled trial, Journal of applied physiology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1864-1873.

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Title Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-mo randomized controlled trial
Author(s) Kukuljan, Sonja
Nowson, Caryl A.
Sanders, Kerrie
Daly, Robin M.
Journal name Journal of applied physiology
Volume number 107
Issue number 6
Start page 1864
End page 1873
Total pages 10
Publisher American Physiological Society
Place of publication [Bethesda, Md.]
Publication date 2009-12-01
ISSN 8750-7587
1522-1601
Keyword(s) resistance training
fortified milk
muscle function
Summary Limited data have suggested that the consumption of fluid milk after resistance training (RT) may promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to assess whether a milk-based nutritional supplement could enhance the effects of RT on muscle mass, size, strength, and function in middle-aged and older men. This was an 18-mo factorial design (randomized control trial) in which 180 healthy men aged 50–79 yr were allocated to the following groups: 1) exercise + fortified milk, 2) exercise, 3) fortified milk, or 4) control. Exercise consisted of progressive RT with weight-bearing impact exercise. Men assigned to the fortified milk consumed 400 ml/day of low-fat milk, providing an additional 836 kJ, 1000 mg calcium, 800 IU vitamin D3, and 13.2 g protein per day. Total body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), midfemur muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (quantitative computed tomography), muscle strength, and physical function were assessed. After 18 mo, there was no significant exercise by fortified milk interaction for total body LM, muscle CSA, or any functional measure. However, main effect analyses revealed that exercise significantly improved muscle strength (∼20–52%, P < 0.001), LM (0.6 kg, P < 0.05), FM (−1.1 kg, P < 0.001), muscle CSA (1.8%, P < 0.001), and gait speed (11%, P < 0.05) relative to no exercise. There were no effects of the fortified milk on muscle size, strength, or function. In conclusion, the daily consumption of low-fat fortified milk does not enhance the effects of RT on skeletal muscle size, strength, or function in healthy middle-aged and older men with adequate energy and nutrient intakes.
Language eng
Field of Research 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2009, American Physiological Society
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30035075

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