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Independent and combined effects of exercise and vitamin D on muscle morphology, function and falls in the elderly

Daly, Robin M. 2010, Independent and combined effects of exercise and vitamin D on muscle morphology, function and falls in the elderly, Nutrients, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 1005-1017.

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Title Independent and combined effects of exercise and vitamin D on muscle morphology, function and falls in the elderly
Author(s) Daly, Robin M.
Journal name Nutrients
Volume number 2
Issue number 9
Start page 1005
End page 1017
Publisher Basel, Switzerland
Place of publication MDPI
Publication date 2010
ISSN 2072-6643
Keyword(s) vitamin D
resistance training
sarcopenia
falls
older adults
interaction
Summary Regular exercise, particularly progressive resistance training (PRT), is recognized as one of the most effective strategies to prevent age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia), but its effects on muscle function are mixed. However, emerging data indicates that high velocity PRT (fast concentric muscle contractions) is more effective for improving functional outcomes than traditional PRT. In terms of falls prevention, high-challenging balance training programs appear to be most effective. There is also compelling evidence that supplemental vitamin D is an effective therapeutic option for falls prevention. The findings from a recent meta-analysis revealed that supplemental vitamin D at a dose of at least 700–1,000 IU/d or an achieved serum 25(OH)D level of at least 60 nmol/L was associated with reduced falls risk among older individuals. Based on these findings, it is possible that the combination of exercise and vitamin D could have a synergistic effect on muscle morphology and function, particularly since both interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on type II “fast twitch” muscle fibers and systemic inflammation, which have both been linked to losses in muscle mass and function. Unfortunately however, the findings from the limited number of factorial 2 × 2 design RCTs indicate that additional vitamin D does not enhance the effects of exercise on measures of muscle morphology, function or falls risk. However, none of these trials were adequately powered to detect a “synergistic” effect between the two treatment strategies, but it is likely that if an exercise-by-vitamin D interaction does exist, it may be limited to situations when vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is corrected. Further targeted research in “high risk” groups is still needed to address this question, and evaluate whether there is a threshold level of serum 25(OH)D to maximize the effects of exercise on muscle and falls risk.
Notes Reproduced under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ “published material can be re-used without obtaining permission as long as a correct citation to the original publication is given” http://www.mdpi.com/about/openaccess
Language eng
Field of Research 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2010, MDPI
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30035201

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