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Cross-sectional geometry of weight-bearing tibia in female athletes subjected to different exercise loadings

Nikander, R., Kannus, P., Rantalainen, T., Uusi-Rasi, K., Heinonen, A. and Sievänen, H. 2009, Cross-sectional geometry of weight-bearing tibia in female athletes subjected to different exercise loadings, Osteoporosis international, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1687-1694, doi: 10.1007/s00198-009-1101-0.

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Title Cross-sectional geometry of weight-bearing tibia in female athletes subjected to different exercise loadings
Author(s) Nikander, R.
Kannus, P.
Rantalainen, T.ORCID iD for Rantalainen, T. orcid.org/0000-0001-6977-4782
Uusi-Rasi, K.
Heinonen, A.
Sievänen, H.
Journal name Osteoporosis international
Volume number 21
Issue number 10
Start page 1687
End page 1694
Total pages 8
Publisher Springer International
Place of publication London, England
Publication date 2009-11-17
ISSN 0937-941X
1433-2965
Keyword(s) bone rigidity
bone structure
exercise
high impact
mechanical loading
odd impact
osteoporosis
pQCT
Summary Summary The association of long-termsport-specific exercise loading with cross-sectional geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among 204 female athletes representing five different exercise loadings and 50 referents. All exercises involving ground impacts (e.g., endurance running, ball games, jumping) were associated with thicker cortex at the distal and diaphyseal sites of the tibia and also with large diaphyseal cross-section, whereas the high-magnitude (powerlifting) and non-impact (swimming) exercises were not. Introduction Bones adapt to the specific loading to which they are habitually subjected. In this cross-sectional study, the association of long-term sport-specific exercise loading with the geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among premenopausal female athletes representing 11 different sports.

Methods A total of 204 athletes were divided into five exercise loading groups, and the respective peripheral quantitative computed tomographic data were compared to data obtained from 50 physically active, non-athletic referents. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate the between-group differences.

Results At the distal tibia, the high-impact, odd-impact, and repetitive low-impact exercise loading groups had ~30% to 50% (p<0.05) greater cortical area (CoA) than the referents. At the tibial shaft, these three impact groups had ~15% to 20% (p<0.05) greater total area (ToA) and ~15% to 30% (p<0.05) greater CoA. By contrast, both the high-magnitude and repetitive non-impact groups had similar ToA and CoA values to the reference group at both tibial sites.

Conclusions High-impact, odd-impact, and repetitive lowimpact exercise loadings were associated with thicker cortex at the distal tibia. At the tibial shaft, impact loading was not only associated with thicker cortex, but also a larger cross-sectional area. High-magnitude exercise loading did not show such associations at either site but was comparable to repetitive non-impact loading and reference data. Collectively, the relevance of high strain rate together with moderate-to-high strain magnitude as major determinants of osteogenic loading of the weight-bearing tibia is implicated.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s00198-009-1101-0
Field of Research 119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2009, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30036191

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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