Glucose oxidase (GOx) is an important enzyme with great potential application for enzymatic sensing of glucose, in implantable biofuel cells for powering of medical devices in vivo and for large-scale biofuel cells for distributed energy generation. For these applications, immobilisation of GOx and direct transfer of electrons from the enzyme to an electrode material is required. This paper describes synthesis of conducting polymer (CP) structures in which GOx has been entrained such that direct electron transfer is possible between GOx and the CP. CP/enzyme composites prepared by other means show no evidence of such “wiring”. These materials therefore show promise for mediator-less electronic connection of GOx into easily produced electrodes for biosensing or biofuel cell applications.
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