In present study, the formation of bioactive anatase on bulk titanium (Ti) by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) is reported. A commercial pure Ti plate first underwent SMAT in a vacuum for 1 h to produce a nanocrystalline layer with a thickness of about 30 µm, and then the nanocrystalline Ti (30 nm) was transformed into mesoporous anatase with a grain size 10 nm by chemical oxidation and calcination. The mesoporous anatase showed excellent bioactivity while being soaked in simulated body fluid, which could be attributed to the unique nanostructure on the SMAT Ti surface.
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