Surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), a novel surface severe plastic deformation method, was carried out for titanium (Ti) to create a gradient-structured Ti (SMAT Ti). The tribological behaviour was studied under different loads and dry sliding conditions. The results showed that the deformation layer of SMAT Ti was about 160 Î¼m. The friction and wear results showed that the wear resistance of SMAT Ti was enhanced compared to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. SMAT Ti showed abrasive wear under 1 and 5 N, and exhibited abrasive and adhesive wear under 2 N. While CG Ti showed abrasive and adhesive wear under 1-2 N, and exhibited abrasive wear under 5 N for the work hardening effects.