The possibility of fabricating carbon nanofibers from cellulose nanofibers was investigated. Cellulose nanofiber of ~50 nm in diameter was produced using ball milling in an eco-friendly manner. The effect of the drying techniques of cellulose nanofibers on the morphology of carbon residue was studied. After pyrolysis of freeze-dried cellulose nanofibers below 600 Â°C, amorphous carbon fibers of ~20 nm in diameter were obtained. The pyrolysis of oven-dried precursors resulted in the loss of original fibrous structures. The different results arising from the two drying techniques are attributed to the difference in the spatial distance between cellulose nanofiber precursors.