New drug targets in depression : inflammatory, cell-mediated immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial, antioxidant, and neuroprogressive pathways. And new drug candidates—Nrf2 activators and GSK-3 inhibitors

Maes, Michael, Fisar, Zdenek, Medina, Miguel, Scapagnini, Giovanni, Nowak, Gabriel and Berk, Michael 2012, New drug targets in depression : inflammatory, cell-mediated immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial, antioxidant, and neuroprogressive pathways. And new drug candidates—Nrf2 activators and GSK-3 inhibitors, Inflammopharmacology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 127-150.

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Title New drug targets in depression : inflammatory, cell-mediated immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial, antioxidant, and neuroprogressive pathways. And new drug candidates—Nrf2 activators and GSK-3 inhibitors
Author(s) Maes, Michael
Fisar, Zdenek
Medina, Miguel
Scapagnini, Giovanni
Nowak, Gabriel
Berk, Michael
Journal name Inflammopharmacology
Volume number 20
Issue number 3
Start page 127
End page 150
Total pages 24
Publisher Birkhaeuser Verlag AG
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publication date 2012-06
ISSN 0925-4692
Keyword(s) Depression
Neuroprogression
Oxidative and nitrosative stress
Serotonin
Cytokines
Inflammation
Antidepressants
Summary This paper reviews new drug targets in the treatment of depression and new drug candidates to treat depression. Depression is characterized by aberrations in six intertwined pathways: (1) inflammatory pathways as indicated by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, e.g. interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor α. (2) Activation of cell-mediated immune pathways as indicated by an increased production of interferon γ and neopterin. (3) Increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), including lipid peroxidation, damage to DNA, proteins and mitochondria. (4) Lowered levels of key antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, zinc, vitamin E, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase. (5) Damage to mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA and reduced activity of respiratory chain enzymes and adenosine triphosphate production. (6) Neuroprogression, which is the progressive process of neurodegeneration, apoptosis, and reduced neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity, phenomena that are probably caused by inflammation and O&NS. Antidepressants tend to normalize the above six pathways. Targeting these pathways has the potential to yield antidepressant effects, e.g. using cytokine antagonists, minocycline, Cox-2 inhibitors, statins, acetylsalicylic acid, ketamine, ω3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors. These six pathways offer new, pathophysiologically guided drug targets suggesting that novel therapies could be developed that target these six pathways simultaneously. Both nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activators and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors target the six above-mentioned pathways. GSK-3 inhibitors have antidepressant effects in animal models of depression. Nrf2 activators and GSK-3 inhibitors have the potential to be advanced to phase-2 clinical trials to examine whether they augment the efficacy of antidepressants or are useful as monotherapy.
Language eng
Field of Research 119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2012, Springer Basel AG
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30047251

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Medicine
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