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Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways

Maes, Michael, Berk, Michael, Goehler, Lisa, Song, Cai, Anderson, George, Galecki, Piotr and Leonard, Brian 2012, Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways, BMC medicine, vol. 10, no. 66, pp. 1-19.

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Title Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways
Author(s) Maes, Michael
Berk, Michael
Goehler, Lisa
Song, Cai
Anderson, George
Galecki, Piotr
Leonard, Brian
Journal name BMC medicine
Volume number 10
Issue number 66
Start page 1
End page 19
Total pages 19
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, England
Publication date 2012-06
ISSN 1741-7015
Keyword(s) depression
sickness behavior
inflammation
oxidative stress
cytokines
Summary It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are considerable phenomenological similarities between sickness behavior and depression, for example, behavioral inhibition, anorexia and weight loss, and melancholic (anhedonia), physio-somatic (fatigue, hyperalgesia, malaise), anxiety and neurocognitive symptoms. In clinical depression, however, a transition occurs to sensitization of immuno-inflammatory pathways, progressive damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress to lipids, proteins, and DNA, and autoimmune responses directed against self-epitopes. The latter mechanisms are the substrate of a neuroprogressive process, whereby multiple depressive episodes cause neural tissue damage and consequent functional and cognitive sequelae. Thus, shared immuno-inflammatory pathways underpin the physiology of sickness behavior and the pathophysiology of clinical depression explaining their partially overlapping phenomenology. Inflammation may provoke a Janus-faced response with a good, acute side, generating protective inflammation through sickness behavior and a bad, chronic side, for example, clinical depression, a lifelong disorder with positive feedback loops between (neuro)inflammation and (neuro)degenerative processes following less well defined triggers.
Language eng
Field of Research 119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2012, BioMed Central
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30047432

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Medicine
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.