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Melatonin : an overlooked factor in schizophrenia and in the inhibition of anti-psychotic side effects

Anderson, George and Maes, Michael 2012, Melatonin : an overlooked factor in schizophrenia and in the inhibition of anti-psychotic side effects, Metabolic brain disease, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 113-119, doi: 10.1007/s11011-012-9307-9.

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Title Melatonin : an overlooked factor in schizophrenia and in the inhibition of anti-psychotic side effects
Author(s) Anderson, George
Maes, Michael
Journal name Metabolic brain disease
Volume number 27
Issue number 2
Start page 113
End page 119
Total pages 7
Publisher Springer New York LLC
Place of publication New York, N. Y.
Publication date 2012-06
ISSN 0885-7490
1573-7365
Keyword(s) melatonin
schizophrenia
anti-psychotics
metabolic
inflammation
vitamin D
Summary This paper reviews melatonin as an overlooked factor in the developmental etiology and maintenance of schizophrenia; the neuroimmune and oxidative pathophysiology of schizophrenia; specific symptoms in schizophrenia, including sleep disturbance; circadian rhythms; and side effects of antipsychotics, including tardive dyskinesia and metabolic syndrome. Electronic databases, i.e. PUBMED, Scopus and Google Scholar were used as sources for this review using keywords: schizophrenia, psychosis, tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotics, metabolic syndrome, drug side effects and melatonin. Articles were selected on the basis of relevance to the etiology, course and treatment of schizophrenia. Melatonin levels and melatonin circadian rhythm are significantly decreased in schizophrenic patients. The adjunctive use of melatonin in schizophrenia may augment the efficacy of antipsychotics through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Further, melatonin would be expected to improve sleep disorders in schizophrenia and side effects of anti-psychotics, such as tardive dyskinesia, metaboilic syndrome and hypertension. It is proposed that melatonin also impacts on the tryptophan catabolic pathway via its effect on stress response and cortisol secretion, thereby impacting on cortex associated cognition, amygdala associated affect and striatal motivational processing. The secretion of melatonin is decreased in schizophrenia, contributing to its etiology, pathophysiology and management. Melatonin is likely to have impacts on the metabolic side effects of anti-psychotics that contribute to subsequent decreases in life-expectancy.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s11011-012-9307-9
Field of Research 119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2012, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30047551

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Medicine
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 38 times in TR Web of Science
Scopus Citation Count Cited 49 times in Scopus
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Created: Thu, 30 Aug 2012, 09:42:10 EST

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