Calcaneal ultrasound reference ranges for Australian men and women : the Geelong Osteoporosis Study

Gould, H., Brennan, S. L., Nicholson, G. C., Kotowicz, M. A., Henry, M. J. and Pasco, J. A. 2013, Calcaneal ultrasound reference ranges for Australian men and women : the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Osteoporosis international, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1369-1377.

Attached Files
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads

Title Calcaneal ultrasound reference ranges for Australian men and women : the Geelong Osteoporosis Study
Author(s) Gould, H.
Brennan, S. L.
Nicholson, G. C.
Kotowicz, M. A.
Henry, M. J.
Pasco, J. A.
Journal name Osteoporosis international
Volume number 24
Issue number 4
Start page 1369
End page 1377
Total pages 9
Publisher Springer UK
Place of publication Surrey, England
Publication date 2013-04
ISSN 0937-941X
Keyword(s) bone and bones
reference ranges
Summary Summary Heel ultrasound is a more portable modality for assessing fracture risk than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and does not use ionising radiation. Fracture risk assessment requires appropriate reference data to enable comparisons. This study reports the first heel ultrasound reference ranges for the Australian population.

Introduction This study aimed to develop calcaneal (heel) ultrasound reference ranges for the Australian adult population using a population-based random sample.

Methods Men and women aged ≥20 years were randomly selected from the Barwon Statistical Division in 2001–2006 and 1993–1997, respectively, using the electoral roll. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (SI) were measured at the heel using a Lunar Achilles Ultrasonometer. Gender-specific means and standard deviations for BUA, SOS and SI were calculated for the entire sample (men 20–93 years, n = 1,104; women 20–92 years, n = 914) and for participants aged 20–29 years (men, n = 157; women, n = 151). Associations between ultrasound measures and age were examined using linear regression.

Results For men, mean ± standard deviation BUA, SOS and SI were 118.7 ± 15.8 dB/MHz, 1,577.0 ± 43.7 m/s and 100.5 ± 20.7, respectively; values for women were consistently lower (111.0 ± 16.4 dB/MHz, P < 0.001; 1,571.0 ± 39.0 m/s, P = 0.001; and 93.7 ± 20.3, P < 0.001, respectively). BUA was higher in young men compared with young women (124.5 ± 14.4 vs 121.0 ± 15.1 dB/MHz), but SOS (1,590.1 ± 43.1 vs 1,592.5 ± 35.0 m/s) and SI (108.0 ± 19.9 vs 106.3 ± 17.7) were not. The relationships between age and each ultrasound measure were linear and negative across the age range in men; associations were also negative in women but non-linear.

Conclusion These data provide reference standards to facilitate the assessment of fracture risk in an Australian population using heel ultrasound.
Language eng
Field of Research 119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2012, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation
Persistent URL

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Medicine
Connect to link resolver
Unless expressly stated otherwise, the copyright for items in DRO is owned by the author, with all rights reserved.

Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 1 times in TR Web of Science
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Access Statistics: 159 Abstract Views, 4 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
Created: Thu, 30 Aug 2012, 09:44:53 EST

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact