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1H-NMR and mass spectrometric characterization of the metabolic response of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to long-term handling stress

Karakach, Tobias K., Huenupi, Elizabeth C., Soo, Evelyn C., Walter, John A. and Afonso, Luis O. B. 2009, 1H-NMR and mass spectrometric characterization of the metabolic response of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to long-term handling stress, Metabolomics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 123-137, doi: 10.1007/s11306-008-0144-0.

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Title 1H-NMR and mass spectrometric characterization of the metabolic response of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to long-term handling stress
Author(s) Karakach, Tobias K.
Huenupi, Elizabeth C.
Soo, Evelyn C.
Walter, John A.
Afonso, Luis O. B.
Journal name Metabolomics
Volume number 5
Issue number 1
Start page 123
End page 137
Total pages 15
Publisher Springer New York LLC
Place of publication New York, N. Y.
Publication date 2009-03
ISSN 1573-3882
1573-3890
Keyword(s) 1H-NMR
fish
metabolomics
salmo salar
stress
UPLC-MS
Summary Stressors of various kinds constantly affect fish both in the wild and in culture, examples being acute water temperature and quality changes, predation, handling, and confinement. Known physiological responses of fish to stress such as increases in plasma cortisol and glucose levels, are considered to be adaptive, allowing the animal to cope in the short term. Prolonged exposure to stressors however, has the potential to affect growth, immune function, and survival. Nonetheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the long-term stress response. We have investigated the metabolic response of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to long-term handling stress by analyzing fish plasma via 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultra high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS), and comparing results with controls. Analysis of NMR data indicated a difference in the metabolic profiles of control and stressed fish after 1 week of stress with a maximum difference observed after 2 weeks. These differences were associated with stress-induced increases in phosphatidyl choline, lactate, carbohydrates, alanine, valine and trimethylamine-N-oxide, and decreases in low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, and lipid. UPLC-MS data showed differences at week 2, associated with another set of compounds, tentatively identified on the basis of their mass/charge. Overall the results provided a multi-faceted view of the response of fish to long-term handling stress, indicating that the metabolic disparity between the control and stress groups increased to week 2, but declined by weeks 3 and 4, and revealed several new molecular indicators of long-term stress.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s11306-008-0144-0
Field of Research 070401 Aquaculture
070405 Fish Physiology and Genetics
Socio Economic Objective 830102 Aquaculture Fin Fish (excl. Tuna)
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2008, Springer Science+Business Media
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30047877

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Life and Environmental Sciences
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