Robust patchwork-based embedding and decoding scheme for digital audio watermarking
Natgunanathan, Iynkaran, Xiang, Yong, Rong, Yue, Zhou, Wanlei and Guo, Song 2012, Robust patchwork-based embedding and decoding scheme for digital audio watermarking, IEEE transactions on audio, speech and language processing, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 2232-2239.
This paper presents a novel patchwork-based embedding and decoding scheme for digital audio watermarking. At the embedding stage, an audio segment is divided into two subsegments and the discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of the subsegments are computed. The DCT coefficients related to a specified frequency region are then partitioned into a number of frame pairs. The DCT frame pairs suitable for watermark embedding are chosen by a selection criterion and watermarks are embedded into the selected DCT frame pairs by modifying their coefficients, controlled by a secret key. The modifications are conducted in such a way that the selection criterion used at the embedding stage can be applied at the decoding stage to identify the watermarked DCT frame pairs. At the decoding stage, the secret key is utilized to extract watermarks from the watermarked DCT frame pairs. Compared with existing patchwork watermarking methods, the proposed scheme does not require information of which frame pairs of the watermarked audio signal enclose watermarks and is more robust to conventional attacks.