Microrobotic cell injection is the subject of increasing research interest. At present, an operator relies completely on visual information and can be subject to low success rates, poor repeatability, and extended training times. This paper focuses on increasing operator performance during cell injection in two ways. First, our completed haptic cell injection system aims to increase the operator's performance during real-time cell injection. Haptic bilateralism is investigated and a mapping framework provides an intuitive method for manoeuvring the micropipette in a manner similar to handheld needle insertion. Volumetric virtual fixtures are then introduced to haptically assist the operator to penetrate the cell at the desired location. The performance of the volumetric virtual fixtures is also discussed. Second, the haptically enabled cell injection system is replicated as a virtual environment facilitating virtual offline operator training. Virtual operator training utilizes the same mapping framework and haptic virtual fixtures as the physical system allowing the operator to train offline and then directly transfer their skills to real-time cell injection.
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