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Evaluation of the giant reed (Arundo donax) in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands for the treatment of dairy processing factory wastewater

Idris, Shaharah Mohd, Jones, Paul L., Salzman, Scott A., Croatto, George and Allinson, Graeme 2012, Evaluation of the giant reed (Arundo donax) in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands for the treatment of dairy processing factory wastewater, Environmental science and pollution research, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 3525-3537, doi: 10.1007/s11356-012-0914-0.

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Title Evaluation of the giant reed (Arundo donax) in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands for the treatment of dairy processing factory wastewater
Formatted title Evaluation of the giant reed (Arundo donax) in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands for the treatment of dairy processing factory wastewater
Author(s) Idris, Shaharah Mohd
Jones, Paul L.
Salzman, Scott A.ORCID iD for Salzman, Scott A. orcid.org/0000-0003-1512-7445
Croatto, George
Allinson, Graeme
Journal name Environmental science and pollution research
Volume number 19
Issue number 8
Start page 3525
End page 3537
Total pages 13
Publisher Springer-Verlag 2012
Place of publication Heidelberg , Germany
Publication date 2012-09
ISSN 0944-1344
Keyword(s) Arundo donax
Australia
Victoria
Dairy factory effluent
Nutrient removal
Constructed wetlands
Phragmites australis
Summary Two emergent macrophytes, Arundo donax and Phragmites australis, were established in experimental horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), gravel-based constructed wetlands (CWs) and challenged by treated dairy processing factory wastewater with a median electrical conductivity of 8.9 mS cm−1. The hydraulic loading rate was tested at 3.75 cm day−1. In general, the plants grew well during the 7-month study period, with no obvious signs of salt stress. The major water quality parameters monitored (biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids (SS) and total nitrogen (TN) but not total phosphorus) were generally improved after the effluent had passed through the CWs. There was no significance different in removal efficiencies between the planted beds and unplanted gravel beds (p > 0.007), nor was there any significant difference in removal efficiencies between the A. donax and P. australis beds for most parameters. BOD, SS and TN removal in the A. donax and P. australis CWs was 69, 95 and 26 % and 62, 97 and 26 %, respectively. Bacterial removal was observed but only to levels that would allow reuse of the effluent for use on non-food crops under Victorian state regulations. As expected, the A. donax CWs produced considerably more biomass (37 ± 7.2 kg wet weight) than the P. australis CWs (11 ± 1.4 kg wet weight). This standing crop equates to approximately 179 and 68 tonnes ha−1 year−1 biomass (dry weight) for A. donax and P. australis, respectively (assuming a 250-day growing season and single-cut harvest). The performance similarity of the A. donax and P. australis planted CWs indicates that either may be used in HSSF wetlands treating dairy factory wastewater, although the planting of A. donax provides additional opportunities for secondary income streams through utilisation of the biomass produced.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s11356-012-0914-0
Field of Research 039901 Environmental Chemistry (incl Atmospheric Chemistry)
Socio Economic Objective 960604 Environmental Management Systems
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30050573

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Created: Thu, 14 Feb 2013, 11:38:32 EST by Scott Salzman

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