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How cigarette smoking may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders : a critical review of biological pathways

Moylan, Steven, Jacka, Felice N., Pasco, Julie A. and Berk, Michael 2013, How cigarette smoking may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders : a critical review of biological pathways, Brain and behavior, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 302-326.

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Title How cigarette smoking may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders : a critical review of biological pathways
Author(s) Moylan, Steven
Jacka, Felice N.
Pasco, Julie A.
Berk, Michael
Journal name Brain and behavior
Volume number 3
Issue number 3
Start page 302
End page 326
Total pages 25
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Place of publication London, England
Publication date 2013-05
ISSN 2162-3279
Keyword(s) anxiety
anxiety disorder
cigarette
epigenetic
inflammation
mitochondria
neurodevelopment
neurotransmitters
neurotrophins
nicotine
nitrosative stress
oxidative stress
Summary Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between cigarette smoking and increased anxiety symptoms or disorders, with early life exposures potentially predisposing to enhanced anxiety responses in later life. Explanatory models support a potential role for neurotransmitter systems, inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurotrophins and neurogenesis, and epigenetic effects, in anxiety pathogenesis. All of these pathways are affected by exposure to cigarette smoke components, including nicotine and free radicals. This review critically examines and summarizes the literature exploring the role of these systems in increased anxiety and how exposure to cigarette smoke may contribute to this pathology at a biological level. Further, this review explores the effects of cigarette smoke on normal neurodevelopment and anxiety control, suggesting how exposure in early life (prenatal, infancy, and adolescence) may predispose to higher anxiety in later life. A large heterogenous literature was reviewed that detailed the association between cigarette smoking and anxiety symptoms and disorders with structural brain changes, inflammation, and cell-mediated immune markers, markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial function, neurotransmitter systems, neurotrophins and neurogenesis. Some preliminary data were found for potential epigenetic effects. The literature provides some support for a potential interaction between cigarette smoking, anxiety symptoms and disorders, and the above pathways; however, limitations exist particularly in delineating causative effects. The literature also provides insight into potential effects of cigarette smoke, in particular nicotine, on neurodevelopment. The potential treatment implications of these findings are discussed in regards to future therapeutic targets for anxiety. The aforementioned pathways may help mediate increased anxiety seen in people who smoke. Further research into the specific actions of nicotine and other cigarette components on these pathways, and how these pathways interact, may provide insights that lead to new treatment for anxiety and a greater understanding of anxiety pathogenesis.
Language eng
Field of Research 119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2013, The Authors
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30052829

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Medicine
Open Access Collection
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.