Addressing aquaculture-fisheries interactions through the implementation of the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA

Soto, Doris, White, Patrick, Dempster, Tim, De Silva, Sena S., Flores, Alejandro, Karakassis, Yanni, Knapp, Gunnar, Martinez, Javier, Miao, Weimin, Sadovy, Yvonne, Thorstad, Eva and Wiefels, Ronald 2012, Addressing aquaculture-fisheries interactions through the implementation of the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA, in NACA 2010 : Farming the Waters for People and Food : Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture, [The Conference], Phuket, Thailand, pp. 385-436.

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Title Addressing aquaculture-fisheries interactions through the implementation of the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA
Author(s) Soto, Doris
White, Patrick
Dempster, Tim
De Silva, Sena S.
Flores, Alejandro
Karakassis, Yanni
Knapp, Gunnar
Martinez, Javier
Miao, Weimin
Sadovy, Yvonne
Thorstad, Eva
Wiefels, Ronald
Conference name Global Conference on Aquaculture (2010 : Phuket, Thailand)
Conference location Phuket, Thailand
Conference dates 22-25 Sep. 2010
Title of proceedings NACA 2010 : Farming the Waters for People and Food : Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture
Editor(s) Subasinghe, R.
Arthur, J.R.
Bartley, D.M.
De Silva, S.S.
Halwart, M.
Hishamunda, N.
Mohan, C.V.
Sorgaloos, P.
Publication date 2012
Conference series Global Conference on Aquaculture
Start page 385
End page 436
Total pages 52
Publisher [The Conference]
Place of publication Phuket, Thailand
Keyword(s) aquaculture-fisheries interactions
ecosystem approach to aquaculture
culture-based fisheries
food security
integrated management
stakeholder participation
Summary This review addresses how the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) can optimize aquaculture-fisheries interactions considering different spatial scales from farm, aquaculture zone and watershed through to the global market. Aquaculture and fisheries are closely related subsectors with frequent interactions, largely due to the sharing of common ecosystems and natural resources. Interactions are also born from the flow of biomass from fisheries to aquaculture through fish-based feeds (e.g. fishmeal, fish oil and trashfish), through the collection of wild seed and brookstock, and genetic resources and biomass transfer from aquaculture to fisheries through culture-based fisheries (CBF) and escapees. Negative effects include modification of habitats affecting fisheries resources and activities (e.g. mangrove clearing for shrimp ponds, seabed disturbances through anchoring of aquaculture cages or pens, damage to seagrasses, alteration to reproductive habitats, biodiversity loss). Eutrophication of waterbodies due to excess nutrient release leading to anoxia and fish mortality can also impact negatively on biodiversity and wild fish stocks. Release of diseases and chemicals also imposes some threats on fisheries. Yet there could be beneficial impacts; for example, aquaculture is increasingly contributing to capture fisheries through CBF and could contribute to restore overfished stocks. Aquaculture can offer alternative livelihoods to fisherfolk, providing increased opportunity to them and also to their families, and especially to women. Aquaculture-increased production and marketing can also enhance and indirectly improve processing and market access to similar fishery products. The ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) is a strategy for the management of the sector that emphasizes intersectoral complementarities by taking into account the interactions between all the activities within ecologically meaningful boundaries and acknowledging the multiple services provided by ecosystems. The main objective of this review is to understand the status of aquaculture-fisheries interactions associated with the biological, technological, social, economic, environmental, policy, legal and other aspects of aquaculture development and to analyze how these interactions are or could be addressed with an EAA. Therefore, the review involves aspects of scoping, identification of issues, prioritizing, devising management tools and plans for minimizing negative effects and optimizing positive ones within the context of social-ecological resilience, at different relevant geographical scales. Many of the management measures suggested in this review must involve not only EAA but also an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF), especially to deal with issues such as fishery of wild seed and the management of fisheries to produce fishmeal/oil for pelleted feeds or for direct feeding with wet fish. The implementation of EAA and EAF should help to overcome the sectoral and intergovernmental fragmentation of resource management efforts and assist in the development of institutional mechanisms and private-sector arrangements for effective coordination among various sectors active in ecosystems in which aquaculture and fisheries operate and between the various levels of government. Ecosystem-based management involves a transition from traditional sectoral planning and decision-making to the application of a more holistic approach to integrated natural resource management in an adaptive manner.
ISBN 9789251072332
Language eng
Field of Research 070401 Aquaculture
070499 Fisheries Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 830199 Fisheries - Aquaculture not elsewhere classified
HERDC Research category E1 Full written paper - refereed
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30052891

Document type: Conference Paper
Collection: School of Life and Environmental Sciences
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