Combinational loading-unloading rate effects were studied on the behavior of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) under nanoindentation loads. While combinational loading rates showed negligible effects on the performance of NiTi SMAs, the combinational unloading rates did show significant effects on hysteresis energy. The heating-cooling phenomenon during the loading stage and the sole cooling during the unloading stage explain the effects. This study elucidates the nature of thermomechanical SMAs' behaviors during complex compressive loadings with the presence of solid-state phase transition.
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