Transcriptome analysis of pigeon milk production - role of cornification and triglyceride synthesis genes

Gillespie, Meagan J., Crowley, Tamsyn M., Haring, Volker R., Wilson, Susanne L., Harper, Jennifer A., Payne, Jean S., Green, Diane, Monaghan, Paul, Donald, John A., Nicholas, Kevin R. and Moore, Robert J. 2013, Transcriptome analysis of pigeon milk production - role of cornification and triglyceride synthesis genes, BMC genomics, vol. 14, no. 169, pp. 1-12.

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Title Transcriptome analysis of pigeon milk production - role of cornification and triglyceride synthesis genes
Author(s) Gillespie, Meagan J.
Crowley, Tamsyn M.
Haring, Volker R.
Wilson, Susanne L.
Harper, Jennifer A.
Payne, Jean S.
Green, Diane
Monaghan, Paul
Donald, John A.
Nicholas, Kevin R.
Moore, Robert J.
Journal name BMC genomics
Volume number 14
Issue number 169
Start page 1
End page 12
Total pages 12
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd.
Place of publication London, England
Publication date 2013
ISSN 1471-2164
Summary BACKGROUND : The pigeon crop is specially adapted to produce milk that is fed to newly hatched young. The process of pigeon milk production begins when the germinal cell layer of the crop rapidly proliferates in response to prolactin, which results in a mass of epithelial cells that are sloughed from the crop and regurgitated to the young. We proposed that the evolution of pigeon milk built upon the ability of avian keratinocytes to accumulate intracellular neutral lipids during the cornification of the epidermis. However, this cornification process in the pigeon crop has not been characterised. RESULTS: We identified the epidermal differentiation complex in the draft pigeon genome scaffold and found that, like the chicken, it contained beta-keratin genes. These beta-keratin genes can be classified, based on sequence similarity, into several clusters including feather, scale and claw keratins. The cornified cells of the pigeon crop express several cornification-associated genes including cornulin, S100-A9 and A16-like, transglutaminase 6-like and the pigeon 'lactating' crop-specific annexin cp35. Beta-keratins play an important role in 'lactating' crop, with several claw and scale keratins up-regulated. Additionally, transglutaminase 5 and differential splice variants of transglutaminase 4 are up-regulated along with S100-A10. CONCLUSIONS: This study of global gene expression in the crop has expanded our knowledge of pigeon milk production, in particular, the mechanism of cornification and lipid production. It is a highly specialised process that utilises the normal keratinocyte cellular processes to produce a targeted nutrient solution for the young at a very high turnover.
Language eng
Field of Research 059999 Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970105 Expanding Knowledge in the Environmental Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Medicine
School of Life and Environmental Sciences
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