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So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from?

Berk, Michael, Williams, Lana J, Jacka, Felice N, O'Neil, Adrienne, Pasco, Julie A, Moylan, Steven, Allen, Nicholas B, Stuart, Amanda L, Hayley, Amie C, Byne, Michelle L and Maes, Michael 2013, So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from?, BMC medicine, vol. 11, no. 1, Article 200, pp. 1-16.

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Title So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from?
Author(s) Berk, Michael
Williams, Lana J
Jacka, Felice N
O'Neil, Adrienne
Pasco, Julie A
Moylan, Steven
Allen, Nicholas B
Stuart, Amanda L
Hayley, Amie C
Byne, Michelle L
Maes, Michael
Journal name BMC medicine
Volume number 11
Issue number 1
Season Article 200
Start page 1
End page 16
Total pages 16
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, UK
Publication date 2013
ISSN 1741-7015
Keyword(s) Depression
Oxidative stress
Gut
Atopic
Sleep
Dental cares
Vitamin D
Smoking
Exercise
Obesity
Diet
Cytokines
Inflammation
Summary Background
We now know that depression is associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response and activation of cell-mediated immunity, as well as activation of the compensatory anti-inflammatory reflex system. It is similarly accompanied by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), which contribute to neuroprogression in the disorder. The obvious question this poses is ‘what is the source of this chronic low-grade inflammation?’

Discussion
This review explores the role of inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress as possible mediators of known environmental risk factors in depression, and discusses potential implications of these findings. A range of factors appear to increase the risk for the development of depression, and seem to be associated with systemic inflammation; these include psychosocial stressors, poor diet, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, altered gut permeability, atopy, dental cares, sleep and vitamin D deficiency.

Summary
The identification of known sources of inflammation provides support for inflammation as a mediating pathway to both risk and neuroprogression in depression. Critically, most of these factors are plastic, and potentially amenable to therapeutic and preventative interventions. Most, but not all, of the above mentioned sources of inflammation may play a role in other psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Language eng
Field of Research 119999 Medical and Health Sciences not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2013, BioMed Central
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30060292

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Medicine
Open Access Collection
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.