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The long term effects of sports concussion on retired Australian football players: a study using Transranial Magnetic Stimulation

Pearce, Alan J., Hoy, Kate, Rogers, Mark A., Corp, Daniel T., Maller, Jerome J, Drury, Hannah G.K. and Fitzgerald, Paul B. 2014, The long term effects of sports concussion on retired Australian football players: a study using Transranial Magnetic Stimulation, Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1139-1145, doi: 10.1089/neu.2013.3219.

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Title The long term effects of sports concussion on retired Australian football players: a study using Transranial Magnetic Stimulation
Author(s) Pearce, Alan J.
Hoy, Kate
Rogers, Mark A.ORCID iD for Rogers, Mark A. orcid.org/0000-0002-6808-9545
Corp, Daniel T.
Maller, Jerome J
Drury, Hannah G.K.ORCID iD for Drury, Hannah G.K. orcid.org/0000-0001-9149-9588
Fitzgerald, Paul B.
Journal name Journal of Neurotrauma
Volume number 31
Issue number 12
Start page 1139
End page 1145
Total pages 7
Publisher Mary Ann Liebert Inc. Publishers
Place of publication New Rochelle, NY
Publication date 2014
ISSN 0897-7151
Keyword(s) Mild traumatic brain injury
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Motor cortex inhibition
Sports concussion
Motor execution slowness
Summary This study investigated corticomotor excitability and inhibition, cognitive functioning, and fine motor dexterity in retired elite and amateur Australian football (AF) players who had sustained concussions during their playing careers. Forty male AF players who played at the elite level (n=20; mean age 49.7±5.7 years) or amateur level (n=20; mean age 48.4±6.9 years), and had sustained on average 3.2 concussions 21.9 years previously, were compared with 20 healthy age-matched male controls (mean age 47.56±6.85 years). All participants completed assessments of fine dexterity, visuomotor reaction time, spatial working memory (SWM), and associative learning (AL). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure corticospinal excitability: stimulus-response (SR) curves and motor evoked potential (MEP) 125% of active motor threshold (aMT); and intracortical inhibition: cortical silent period (cSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). Healthy participants performed better in dexterity (p=0.003), reaction (p=0.003), and movement time (p=0.037) than did both AF groups. Differences between AF groups were found in AL (p=0.027) and SWM (p=0.024). TMS measures revealed that both AF groups showed reduced cSP duration at 125% aMT (p>0.001) and differences in SR curves (p>0.001) than did healthy controls. Similarly, SICI (p=0.012) and LICI (p=0.009) were reduced in both AF groups compared with controls. Regression analyses revealed a significant contribution to differences in motor outcomes with the three measures of intracortical inhibition. The measures of inhibition differed, however, in terms of which performance measure they had a significant and unique predictive relationship with, reflecting the variety of participant concussion injuries. This study is the first to demonstrate differences in motor control and intracortical inhibition in AF players who had sustained concussions during their playing career two decades previously.
Language eng
DOI 10.1089/neu.2013.3219
Field of Research 170101 Biological Psychology (Neuropsychology, Psychopharmacology, Physiological Psychology)
Socio Economic Objective 920204 Evaluation of Health Outcomes
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2014, Mary Ann Liebert Inc. Publishers
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30062028

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Psychology
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.