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Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Gagnon, Claudia, Daly, Robin M, Carpentier, André, Lu, Zhong X, Shore-Lorenti, Catherine, Sikaris, Ken, Jean, Sonia and Ebeling, Peter R 2014, Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial, PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1-12, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109607.

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Title Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Author(s) Gagnon, Claudia
Daly, Robin MORCID iD for Daly, Robin M orcid.org/0000-0002-9897-1598
Carpentier, André
Lu, Zhong X
Shore-Lorenti, Catherine
Sikaris, Ken
Jean, Sonia
Ebeling, Peter R
Journal name PLoS ONE
Volume number 9
Issue number 10
Article ID e109607
Start page 1
End page 12
Total pages 12
Publisher Public Library of Science
Place of publication San Francisco, Calif
Publication date 2014-10-09
ISSN 1932-6203
Summary Objectives
To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers.

Design
6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Participants
Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45).

Intervention
Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000–6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months.

Measurements
Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin.

Results
Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed.

Conclusions
Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function in multi-ethnic adults with low vitamin D status at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, in participants with prediabetes, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium may improve insulin sensitivity.
Language eng
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0109607
Field of Research 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 920104 Diabetes
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2014, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30067726

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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Created: Tue, 09 Dec 2014, 11:16:29 EST

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.