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Sucrose and lollypops to reduce immunisation pain in toddlers and young children: two pilot randomised controlled trials

Harrison, Denise, Elia, Sonja, Manias, Elizabeth and Royle, Jenny 2014, Sucrose and lollypops to reduce immunisation pain in toddlers and young children: two pilot randomised controlled trials, Neonatal, paediatric and child health nursing, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 19-26.

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Title Sucrose and lollypops to reduce immunisation pain in toddlers and young children: two pilot randomised controlled trials
Author(s) Harrison, Denise
Elia, Sonja
Manias, ElizabethORCID iD for Manias, Elizabeth
Royle, Jenny
Journal name Neonatal, paediatric and child health nursing
Volume number 17
Issue number 1
Start page 19
End page 26
Total pages 8
Publisher Ink Press International
Place of publication Perth, W.A.
Publication date 2014-03
ISSN 1441-6638
Keyword(s) Immunisation
Pilot study
Preschool children
Procedural pain
Randomised controlled trial
Summary Aims To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of sweet taste in reducing pain in toddlers and pre-school children during immunisation and to use the results to inform a sample size estimation for future full-scale trials. Background Sweet solutions reduce procedural pain in newborn infants and in infants beyond the newborn period. It is unclear if sweet taste continues to reduce procedural pain in children older than one year of age. Design Two parallel design pilot randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Methods Children attending an Immunisation Drop-in Clinic at a children's hospital in Australia participated in one of two pilot RCTs: 1) a double-blinded RCT of 33% sucrose compared to water in toddlers receiving their 12- or 18-month immunisation or 2) a non-blinded RCT of lollypop compared to standard care (active distraction using bubble and pin wheel blowing) in pre-school children aged 3-5 years. Primary outcomes included cry incidence and duration and pain score using the FLACC. Results Interventions, standard care and all aspects of the study were acceptable to children, parents and immunisation nurses. More toddlers in the sucrose group received their 12-month immunisation and more injections (n=35) compared to toddlers randomised to water (n=26). There were no significant differences in crying time or pain scores between intervention and control groups in either pilot RCT. Conclusion The study interventions are acceptable to children and parents. Full-scale trials would be feasible to conduct. Implications for clinical practice Toddlers receiving their 12-month immunisation should be the focus of future full-scale RCTs.
Language eng
Field of Research 111099 Nursing not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 920501 Child Health
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2014, Cambridge Publishing
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Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Nursing and Midwifery
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