Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance

Gast, U., Belavý, D.L., Armbrecht, G., Kusy, K., Lexy, H., Rawer,R, Rittweger,J, Winwood,K, Zieliński,J and Felsenberg,D 2013, Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance, Osteoporosis international, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 2033-2042, doi: 10.1007/s00198-012-2234-0.

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Title Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance
Author(s) Gast, U.
Belavý, D.L.ORCID iD for Belavý, D.L.
Armbrecht, G.
Kusy, K.
Lexy, H.
Journal name Osteoporosis international
Volume number 24
Issue number 7
Start page 2033
End page 2042
Total pages 10
Publisher Springer
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2013-07
ISSN 1433-2965
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Endocrinology & Metabolism
Mechanical loading
Summary UNLABELLED: Individuals who are involved in explosive sport types, such as 100-m sprints and long jump, have greater bone density, leg muscle size, jumping height and grip strength than individuals involved in long-distance running. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between different types of physical activity with bone, lean mass and neuromuscular performance in older individuals. METHODS: We examined short- (n = 50), middle- (n = 19) and long-distance (n = 109) athletes at the 15th European Masters Championships in Poznań, Poland. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and lean tissue mass. Maximal countermovement jump, multiple one-leg hopping and maximal grip force tests were performed. RESULTS: Short-distance athletes showed significantly higher aBMD at the legs, hip, lumbar spine and trunk compared to long-distance athletes (p ≤ 0.0012). Countermovement jump performance, hop force, grip force, leg lean mass and arm lean mass were greater in short-distance athletes (p ≤ 0.027). A similar pattern was seen in middle-distance athletes who typically showed higher aBMD and better neuromuscular performance than long-distance athletes, but lower in magnitude than short-distance athletes. In all athletes, aBMD was the same or higher than the expected age-adjusted population mean at the lumbar spine, hip and whole body. This effect was greater in the short- and middle-distance athletes. CONCLUSIONS: The stepwise relation between short-, middle- and long-distance athletes on bone suggests that the higher-impact loading protocols in short-distance disciplines are more effective in promoting aBMD. The regional effect on bone, with the differences between the groups being most marked at load-bearing regions (legs, hip, spine and trunk) rather than non-load-bearing regions, is further evidence in support of the idea that bone adaptation to exercise is dependent upon the local loading environment, rather than as part of a systemic effect.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s00198-012-2234-0
Field of Research 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 920299 Health and Support Services not elsewhere classified
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2012, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation
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Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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