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The impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on depressive and anxiety behaviors in children: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

Moylan,S, Gustavson,K, Øverland,S, Karevold,EB, Jacka,FN, Pasco,JA and Berk,M 2015, The impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on depressive and anxiety behaviors in children: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study., BMC Medicine, vol. 13, pp. 24, doi: 10.1186/s12916-014-0257-4.

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Title The impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on depressive and anxiety behaviors in children: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
Author(s) Moylan,S
Gustavson,K
Øverland,S
Karevold,EB
Jacka,FNORCID iD for Jacka,FN orcid.org/0000-0002-9825-0328
Pasco,JAORCID iD for Pasco,JA orcid.org/0000-0002-8968-4714
Berk,MORCID iD for Berk,M orcid.org/0000-0002-5554-6946
Journal name BMC Medicine
Volume number 13
Start page 24
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication England
Publication date 2015
ISSN 1741-7015
Keyword(s) Cigarette smoking
Obstetrics
Psychiatry
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Medicine, General & Internal
General & Internal Medicine
PRENATAL NICOTINE EXPOSURE
CIGARETTE-SMOKING
RISK-FACTORS
SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
BIRTH COHORT
GENERATION-R
CAUSAL
PRESCHOOLERS
ASSOCIATION
POPULATION
Summary BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with multiple adverse childhood outcomes including externalizing behaviors. However, the association between MSDP and internalizing (anxiety and depressive) behaviors in offspring has received less investigation. We aimed to assess the association between MSDP and childhood internalizing (anxiety and depressive) behaviors in a very large, well-characterized cohort study. METHODS: We assessed the association between MSDP and internalizing behaviors in offspring utilizing information drawn from 90,040 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Mothers reported smoking information, including status and frequency of smoking, twice during pregnancy. Mothers also reported their child's internalizing behaviors at 18 months, 36 months, and 5 years. Associations between MSDP and childhood internalizing behaviors, including dose-response and timing of smoking in pregnancy, were assessed at each time point. RESULTS: MSDP was associated with increased internalizing behaviors when offspring were aged 18 months (B = 0.11, P <0.001) and 36 months (B = 0.06, P <0.01), adjusting for numerous potential confounders. Higher rates of smoking (e.g., >20 cigarettes per day) were associated with higher levels of internalizing behaviors. Maternal smoking during early pregnancy appeared to be the critical period for exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence supporting a potential role for MSDP in increasing internalizing (anxiety and depressive) behaviors in offspring. We also found evidence supportive of a possible causal relationship, including dose-dependency and support for a predominant role of early pregnancy exposure. Further investigation utilizing genetically informed designs are warranted to assess this association.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/s12916-014-0257-4
Field of Research 110319 Psychiatry (incl Psychotherapy)
Socio Economic Objective 920410 Mental Health
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2015, BioMed Central
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30071238

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Medicine
Open Access Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 6 times in TR Web of Science
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.