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Australian children's consumption of caffeinated, formulated beverages: a cross-sectional analysis

Beckford, Kelsey, Grimes, Carley A. and Riddell, Lynn J. 2015, Australian children's consumption of caffeinated, formulated beverages: a cross-sectional analysis, BMC public health, vol. 15, Article Number : 70, pp. 1-10, doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1443-9.

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Title Australian children's consumption of caffeinated, formulated beverages: a cross-sectional analysis
Author(s) Beckford, Kelsey
Grimes, Carley A.ORCID iD for Grimes, Carley A. orcid.org/0000-0002-9123-1888
Riddell, Lynn J.ORCID iD for Riddell, Lynn J. orcid.org/0000-0002-0688-2134
Journal name BMC public health
Volume number 15
Season Article Number : 70
Start page 1
End page 10
Total pages 10
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2015
ISSN 1471-2458
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
Caffeine
Dietary
Beverages
Soft drink
Child
Adolescent
Australia
SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGES
BODY-WEIGHT
INTERNATIONAL SURVEY
OBESITY
TRIAL
ADOLESCENTS
DRINKS
DIETS
Summary BACKGROUND: Caffeine is a common additive in formulated beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages. Currently there are no data on the consumption of caffeinated formulated beverages in Australian children and adolescents. This study aimed to determine total intake and consumption patterns of CFBs in a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 2-16 years and to determine contribution of CFBs to total caffeine intake. Consumption by day type, mealtime and location was also examined.

METHODS: Dietary data from one 24-hour recall collected in the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analysed. CFBs were defined as beverages to which caffeine has been added as an additive, including cola-type beverages and energy drinks. Socioeconomic status was based on the highest level of education attained by the participant's primary caregiver. Time of day of consumption was classified based on traditional mealtimes and type of day of consumption as either a school or non-school day. Location of consumption was defined by the participant during the survey.

RESULTS: On the day of the survey 15% (n = 642) of participants consumed CFBs. Older children and those of low socioeconomic background were more likely to consume CFBs (both P < 0.001). Amongst the 642 consumers mean (95% CI) intakes were 151 (115-187)g/day, 287 (252-321)g/day, 442 (400-484)g/day, and 555 (507-602)g/day for 2-3, 4-8, 9-13 and 14-16 year olds respectively. Consumers of CFBs had higher intakes of caffeine (mean (95% CI) 61 (55-67)mg vs. 11 (10-12)mg) and energy (mean (95% CI) 9,612 (9,247-9978)kJ vs. 8,186 (8,040-8,335)kJ) than non-consumers (both P < 0.001). CFBs contributed 69% of total daily caffeine intake. CFB intake was higher on non-school days compared with school days (P < 0.005) and consumption occurred predominantly at the place of residence (56%), within the "dinner" time bracket (17:00-20:30, 44%).

CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of CFBs by all age groups within Australian children is of concern. Modifications to the permissibility of caffeine as a food additive may be an appropriate strategy to reduce the intake of caffeine in this age group. Additional areas for intervention include targeting parental influences over mealtime beverage choices.
Notes Reproduced with the kind permission of the copyright owner.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1443-9
Field of Research 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 920411 Nutrition
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2015, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30071766

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.