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Higher dietary calcium intakes are associated with reduced risks of fractures, cardiovascular events, and mortality: a prospective cohort study of older men and women

Khan, Belal, Nowson, Caryl A., Daly, Robin M., English, Dallas R., Hodge, Allison M., Giles, Graham G. and Ebeling, Peter R. 2015, Higher dietary calcium intakes are associated with reduced risks of fractures, cardiovascular events, and mortality: a prospective cohort study of older men and women, Journal of bone and mineral research, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1758-1766, doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2515.

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Title Higher dietary calcium intakes are associated with reduced risks of fractures, cardiovascular events, and mortality: a prospective cohort study of older men and women
Author(s) Khan, Belal
Nowson, Caryl A.ORCID iD for Nowson, Caryl A. orcid.org/0000-0001-6586-7965
Daly, Robin M.ORCID iD for Daly, Robin M. orcid.org/0000-0002-9897-1598
English, Dallas R.
Hodge, Allison M.
Giles, Graham G.
Ebeling, Peter R.
Journal name Journal of bone and mineral research
Volume number 30
Issue number 10
Start page 1758
End page 1766
Total pages 9
Publisher Wiley
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2015-10
ISSN 1523-4681
Keyword(s) CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
DIETARY CALCIUM
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY
FRACTURE PREVENTION
MORTALITY
STROKE
Summary The aim of this population-based, prospective cohort study was to investigate long-term associations between dietary calcium intake and fractures, non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD), and death from all causes. Participants were from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, which was established in 1990 to 1994. A total of 41,514 men and women (∼99% aged 40 to 69 years at baseline) were followed up for a mean (SD) of 12 (1.5) years. Primary outcome measures were time to death from all causes (n = 2855), CVD-related deaths (n = 557), cerebrovascular disease-related deaths (n = 139), incident non-fatal CVD (n = 1827), incident stroke events (n = 537), and incident fractures (n = 788). A total of 12,097 participants (aged ≥50 years) were eligible for fracture analysis and 34,468 for non-fatal CVD and mortality analyses. Mortality was ascertained by record linkage to registries. Fractures and CVD were ascertained from interview ∼13 years after baseline. Quartiles of baseline energy-adjusted calcium intake from food were estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) were calculated for quartiles of dietary calcium intake. Highest and lowest quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary calcium intakes represented unadjusted means (SD) of 1348 (316) mg/d and 473 (91) mg/d, respectively. Overall, there were 788 (10.3%) incident fractures, 1827 (9.0%) incident CVD, and 2855 people (8.6%) died. Comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of calcium intake, for all-cause mortality, the HR was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.98, ptrend  = 0.01); for non-fatal CVD and stroke, the OR was 0.84 (95% CI 0.70-0.99, ptrend  = 0.04) and 0.69 (95% CI 0.51-0.93, ptrend  = 0.02), respectively; and the OR for fracture was 0.70 (95% CI 0.54-0.92, ptrend  = 0.004). In summary, for older men and women, calcium intakes of up to 1348 (316) mg/d from food were associated with decreased risks for fracture, non-fatal CVD, stroke, and all-cause mortality.
Language eng
DOI 10.1002/jbmr.2515
Field of Research 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 920116 Skeletal System and Disorders (incl. Arthritis)
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2015, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30074955

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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