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Establishing intra- and inter-rater agreement of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale for evaluating pain in toddlers during immunization

Gomez, Rebecca J., Barrowman, Nick, Elia, Sonja, Manias, Elizabeth, Royle, Jenny and Harrison, Denise 2013, Establishing intra- and inter-rater agreement of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale for evaluating pain in toddlers during immunization, Pain research management, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. e124-e128, doi: 10.1155/2013/897104.

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Title Establishing intra- and inter-rater agreement of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale for evaluating pain in toddlers during immunization
Author(s) Gomez, Rebecca J.
Barrowman, Nick
Elia, Sonja
Manias, ElizabethORCID iD for Manias, Elizabeth orcid.org/0000-0002-3747-0087
Royle, Jenny
Harrison, Denise
Journal name Pain research management
Volume number 18
Issue number 6
Start page e124
End page e128
Total pages 5
Publisher Hindawi Publishing Group
Place of publication Cairo, Egypt
Publication date 2013-11
ISSN 1918-1523
Keyword(s) Child, Preschool
Crying
Face
Female
Humans
Immunization
Leg
Male
Motor Activity
Observer Variation
Pain
Pain Measurement
Pediatrics
Psychometrics
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Reproducibility of Results
Summary BACKGROUND: The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) scale is a five-item tool that was developed to assess postoperative pain in young children. The tool is frequently used as an outcome measure in studies investigating acute procedural pain in young children; however, there are limited published psychometric data in this context.

OBJECTIVE: To establish inter-rater and intrarater agreement of the FLACC scale in toddlers during immunization.

METHODS: Participants comprised a convenience sample of toddlers recruited from an immunization drop-in service, who were part of a larger pilot randomized controlled trial. Toddlers were video- and audiotaped during immunization procedures. The first rater scored each video twice in random order over a period of three weeks (intrarater agreement), while the second rater scored each video once and was blinded to the first rater's scores (inter-rater agreement). The FLACC scale was scored at four timepoints throughout the procedure. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess agreement of the FLACC scale.

RESULTS: Thirty toddlers between 12 and 18 months of age were recruited, and video data were available for 29. Intrarater agreement coefficients were 0.88 at baseline, 0.97 at insertion of first needle, and 0.80 and 0.81 at 15 s and 30 s following the final injection, respectively. Inter-rater coefficients were 0.40 at baseline, 0.95 at insertion of first needle, and 0.81 and 0.78 at 15 s and 30 s following the final injection, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The FLACC scale has sufficient agreement in assessing pain in toddlers during immunizations, especially during the most painful periods of the procedure.
Language eng
DOI 10.1155/2013/897104
Field of Research 111099 Nursing not elsewhere classified
1103 Clinical Sciences
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2013, Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30076287

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Nursing and Midwifery
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.