Effects of a specialist-led, school physical education program on bone mass, structure and strength in primary school children: a 4-year cluster randomised controlled trial

Daly, Robin M., Ducher, Gaele, Hill, Briony, Telford, Rohan M., Eser, Prisca, Naughton, Geraldine, Seibel, Markus J. and Telford, Richard D. 2016, Effects of a specialist-led, school physical education program on bone mass, structure and strength in primary school children: a 4-year cluster randomised controlled trial, Journal of bone and mineral research, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 289-298.

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Title Effects of a specialist-led, school physical education program on bone mass, structure and strength in primary school children: a 4-year cluster randomised controlled trial
Author(s) Daly, Robin M.ORCID iD for Daly, Robin M. orcid.org/0000-0002-9897-1598
Ducher, Gaele
Hill, BrionyORCID iD for Hill, Briony orcid.org/0000-0003-4993-3963
Telford, Rohan M.
Eser, Prisca
Naughton, Geraldine
Seibel, Markus J.
Telford, Richard D.
Journal name Journal of bone and mineral research
Volume number 31
Issue number 2
Start page 289
End page 298
Total pages 10
Publisher Wiley
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2016-02
ISSN 1523-4681
Keyword(s) bone strength
children
elementary school
exercise
pQCT
physical activity
Summary This 4-year cluster randomised controlled trial of 365 boys and 362 girls (mean age 8.1 ± 0.3 years) from grade 2 in 29 primary schools investigated the effects of a specialist-taught physical education (PE) program on bone strength and body composition. All children received 150 min/week of common practice (CP) PE from general classroom teachers but in 13 schools 100 min/week of CP PE was replaced by specialized-led PE (SPE) by teachers who emphasized more vigorous exercise/games combined with static and dynamic postural activities involving muscle strength. Outcome measures assessed in grades 2, 4, and 6 included: total body bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) by DXA, and radius and tibia (4% and 66% sites) bone structure, volumetric density and strength, and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by pQCT. After 4-years, gains in total body BMC, FM and muscle CSA were similar between the groups in both sexes, but girls in the SPE group experienced a greater gain in total body LM [mean (95%CI), 1.0kg (0.2, 1.9)]. Compared to CP, girls in the SPE group also had greater gains in cortical area (CoA) and cortical thickness (CoTh) at the mid-tibia [CoA, 5.0% (0.2, 1.9); CoTh 7.5% (2.4, 12.6)] and mid-radius [CoA, 9.3% (3.5, 15.1); CoTh 14.4% (6.1, 22.7)], while SPE boys had a 5.2% (0.4, 10.0) greater gain in mid-tibia CoTh. These benefits were due to reduced endocortical expansion. There were no significant benefits of SPE on total bone area, cortical density or bone strength at the mid-shaft sites, nor any appreciable effects at the distal skeletal sites. This study indicates that a specialist-led school-based PE program improves cortical bone structure, due to reduced endocortical expansion. This finding challenges the notion that periosteal apposition is the predominant response of bone to loading during the pre- and early-pubertal period. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Language eng
Field of Research 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 920501 Child Health
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, Wiley
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30077112

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