Online distance education models and research implications

Evans, Terry D. and Haughey, Margaret 2014, Online distance education models and research implications. In Zawacki-Richter, Olaf and Anderson, Terry (ed), , Athabasca University Press, Edmonton, Ab., pp.131-149, doi: 10.15215/aupress/9781927356623.01.

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Title Online distance education models and research implications
Author(s) Evans, Terry D.ORCID iD for Evans, Terry D.
Haughey, Margaret
Editor(s) Zawacki-Richter, Olaf
Anderson, Terry
Publication date 2014
Series Issues in distance education
Chapter number 4
Total chapters 17
Start page 131
End page 149
Total pages 19
Publisher Athabasca University Press
Place of Publication Edmonton, Ab.
Keyword(s) Social Sciences
Education & Educational Research
Distance & online learning
Education theory
Summary As a form of education, distance education is influenced by educationaltheories and ideologies. Hence, over time its various theoretical modelshave reflected varying emphases on students, both individually and ingroups, on content and process, and on administration and costs, and itsguiding philosophies have ranged from knowledge replication to knowledge creation, and from teacher direction to learner engagement. Its founding purpose was the provision of education to populations who were not able to access available residential education. The reasons were not only based on the individual situation, such as, geographic location, family commitments,work commitments, or cost factors, but also included state issues such as insufficient institutions or a lack of enrolment places, full-time funding, or sufficient staff. These factors have contributed in various ways to the growth of distance education, both historically as when distance education was a major focus in many European countries after WWII, and as a current imperative in many countries where the need and desire for education outstrips the supply through residential institutions, regardless of their fiscal capacities. Education is seen by both individuals and states as essential for the development of a better socio-economic environment, hence, distance education has become the cost-affordable means of provision for millions worldwide.Distance education, then, is framed within larger socio-economic andpolitical contexts. These are not only reflective of societal characteristics like those identified by Keegan (2000): immediacy, globalization, privatization, and industrialization, to which we added professional learning, but also reflective of current social, political, and economic circumstances, such as the sequence of global economic crises this century.Within these contexts then, the provision of distance education seldomarises from the desire of an institution alone; rather there are likely to becomplex national, local, and individual aspirations where distance education is seen as the best solution. The realization of this provision depends on the issues being addressed and the various influences on the particular configuration of design and provision. It may be publicly or privately funded; it may seek to emulate or extend educational provision in residential institutions; its focus may be on increasing access or openness or convenience.Models or designs for distance education, then, have generally arisen from consideration of these instances, in part to provide a framework for researchers and in part to provide a means to reflect on issues that the models themselves have tried to resolve and sometimes inadvertently create.
ISBN 9781927356623
ISSN 1919-4382
Language eng
DOI 10.15215/aupress/9781927356623.01
Field of Research 130103 Higher Education
Socio Economic Objective 970113 Expanding Knowledge in Education
HERDC Research category B1 Book chapter
ERA Research output type B Book chapter
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