Male sex and pre-existing diabetes are independent risk factors for stillbirth

Engel, Patricia J., Smith, Roger, Brinsmead, Maxwell W., Bowe, Stephen J. and Clifton, Vicki L. 2008, Male sex and pre-existing diabetes are independent risk factors for stillbirth, Australian and New Zealand journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 375-383, doi: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2008.00863.x.

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Title Male sex and pre-existing diabetes are independent risk factors for stillbirth
Author(s) Engel, Patricia J.
Smith, Roger
Brinsmead, Maxwell W.
Bowe, Stephen J.ORCID iD for Bowe, Stephen J.
Clifton, Vicki L.
Journal name Australian and New Zealand journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
Volume number 48
Issue number 4
Start page 375
End page 383
Total pages 9
Publisher Wiley
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2008-08
ISSN 1479-828X
Summary AIM: To determine whether the risk of stillbirth is associated with male fetal sex, fetal growth and maternal factors in an Australian population. METHODS: A retrospective secondary data analysis of 16 445 singleton births was performed using a tertiary referral centre obstetric database (1995-1999). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Stillbirth complicated 1% of the pregnancies in the study population, and 59% of stillbirths were associated with a male fetus. Significant characteristics associated with stillbirth were intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), birth defects, gestational age, Aboriginal ethnicity, previous stillbirth, parity greater than three and placental abruption. Male stillbirths were more likely to occur at a later gestation (median gestation 30.5 weeks, range 20-43 weeks) compared to females (median 25 weeks, range 20-40 weeks), P = 0.01. Sixty per cent of IUGR fetuses were female (P < 0.001). Male sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 2.17, P = 0.04) and maternal type 1 diabetes (OR 4.7, CI 1.58, 14.19, P = 0.006) were independently associated with stillbirth. CONCLUSION: Male fetal sex and pre-existing diabetes are independent risk factors for stillbirth. Diabetes remains a significant risk for stillbirth even with contemporary monitoring and clinical management. Those diabetic pregnancies where the fetus is male require appropriate monitoring and timely interventions to achieve an optimal outcome.
Language eng
DOI 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2008.00863.x
Field of Research 111499 Paediatrics and Reproductive Medicine not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 920114 Reproductive System and Disorders
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2008, The Authors
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