The Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is a conventional failure diagram to estimate necking limits of sheet metal for proportional loading conditions. Previous studies reveal that the FLD is not suitable for predicting the influence of nonlinear strain paths. This paper presents methodical comparison among all common available strain path independent strain/stress based limiting criteria. All the strain path independent strain based limiting criteria (Traditional Failure Diagram (TFD), Extended Forming Limit Diagram (XFLD), Extended Stress Ratio Based Forming Limit Diagram (ESRFLD), and Polar Effective Plastic StrainDiagram (PEPSD)) and stress based limiting criteria (Traditional Stress based Failure Diagram (TFSD), Stress Based Forming Limit Diagram (FLSD), Stress Ratio and Stress Based Forming Limit Diagram (SRFLSD), Extended Stress Based Forming Limit Diagram (XFLSD), and Polar Effective Stress Diagram (PESSD)) are approximately path-independent for smaller amount of pre-straining and path dependent for large pre-straining conditions. From advance image correlation technique precisely determination of local strains near necked area is possible today. However direct determination of local stresses near necked area is not possible. Therefore, local stresses and equivalent stress are determined by employing both yield criterion and strain-hardening law. Similarly equivalent strain is calculated by the use of yield criterion. Therefore, the choice of yield criterion has an impact on the results for TFD, XFLD, ESRFLD and PEPSD. However, selections of both yield criterion and strain-hardening law have substantial influence on the results for TFSD, FLSD, SRFLSD, XFLSD and PESSD. The inherent calculation error can be minimized by generation of experimental data for each material and then selection of representable yield criterion and strain-hardening law. Improvement of experimental techniques and generation of rigorous material data bank in various strain paths may help researchers to diagnose and resolve the issue. TFD, TFSD and XFLSD have inherent variables to take care the effect of through thickness stress, however rigorous experimental verification is needed before the field application.
Field of Research
091006 Manufacturing Processes and Technologies (excl Textiles) 0910 Manufacturing Engineering
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