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Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon as affected by water temperature

Norambuena, Fernando, Morais, Sofia, Emery, James A. and Turchini, Giovanni M. 2015, Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon as affected by water temperature, PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 11, Article number : e0143622, pp. 1-25, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143622.

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Title Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon as affected by water temperature
Author(s) Norambuena, Fernando
Morais, Sofia
Emery, James A.
Turchini, Giovanni M.ORCID iD for Turchini, Giovanni M. orcid.org/0000-0003-0694-4283
Journal name PLoS One
Volume number 10
Issue number 11
Season Article number : e0143622
Start page 1
End page 25
Total pages 25
Publisher Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Place of publication San Francisco, Calif.
Publication date 2015
ISSN 1932-6203
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Multidisciplinary Sciences
Science & Technology - Other Topics
POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS
TROUT ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS
SOLE SOLEA-SENEGALENSIS
MEMBRANE LIPID-COMPOSITION
BETA-OXIDATION CAPACITY
DIETARY FISH-OIL
RAINBOW-TROUT
SALAR L.
GENE-EXPRESSION
TELEOST FISH
Summary Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad-time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature recorded a significantly increased feed intake, these results clearly suggested that at high, sub-optimal water temperature, fish metabolism attempted to increment its overall ARA status -the most bioactive LC-PUFA participating in the inflammatory response- by modulating the metabolic fate of dietary ARA (expressed as % of net intake), reducing its β-oxidation and favouring synthesis and deposition. This correlates also with results from other recent studies showing that both immune- and stress- responses in fish are up regulated in fish held at high temperatures. This is a novel and fundamental information that warrants industry and scientific attention, in consideration of the imminent increase in water temperatures, continuous expansion of aquaculture operations, resources utilisation in aquafeed and much needed seasonal/adaptive nutritional strategies.
Language eng
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0143622
Field of Research 070401 Aquaculture
Socio Economic Objective 830102 Aquaculture Fin Fish (excl. Tuna)
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2015, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30081069

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.