A new Raman metric for the characterisation of graphene oxide and its derivatives
King, Alice A. K., Davies, Benjamin R., Noorbehesht, Nikan, Newman, Peter, Church, Tamara L., Harris, Andrew T., Razal, Joselito M. and Minett, Andrew I. 2016, A new Raman metric for the characterisation of graphene oxide and its derivatives, Scientific reports, vol. 6, Article number : 19491, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1038/srep19491.
Raman spectroscopy is among the primary techniques for the characterisation of graphene materials, as it provides insights into the quality of measured graphenes including their structure and conductivity as well as the presence of dopants. However, our ability to draw conclusions based on such spectra is limited by a lack of understanding regarding the origins of the peaks. Consequently, traditional characterisation techniques, which estimate the quality of the graphene material using the intensity ratio between the D and the G peaks, are unreliable for both GO and rGO. Herein we reanalyse the Raman spectra of graphenes and show that traditional methods rely upon an apparent G peak which is in fact a superposition of the G and D' peaks. We use this understanding to develop a new Raman characterisation method for graphenes that considers the D' peak by using its overtone the 2D'. We demonstrate the superiority and consistency of this method for calculating the oxygen content of graphenes, and use the relationship between the D' peak and graphene quality to define three regimes. This has important implications for purification techniques because, once GO is reduced beyond a critical threshold, further reduction offers limited gain in conductivity.
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