Surface properties such as physicochemical characteristics and topographical parameters of biomaterials, essentially determining the interaction between the biological cells and the biomaterial, are important considerations in the design of implant materials. In this study, a layer of SrTiO3-TiO2 nanoparticle-nanotube heterostructures on titanium has been fabricated via anodization combined with a hydrothermal process. Titanium was anodized to create a layer of titania (TiO2) nanotubes (TNTs), which was then decorated with a layer of SrTiO3 nanoparticles via hydrothermal processing. SrTiO3-TiO2 heterostructures with high and low volume fraction of SrTiO3 nanoparticle (denoted by 6.3-Sr/TNTs and 1.4-Sr/TNTs) were achieved by using a hydrothermal processing time of 12 and 3 h, respectively. The in vitro biocompatibility of the SrTiO3-TiO2 heterostructures was assessed by using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). Our results indicated that the SrTiO3-TiO2 heterostructures with different volume fractions of SrTiO3 nanoparticles exhibited different Sr ion release in cell culture media and different surface energies. An appropriate volume fraction of SrTiO3 in the heterostructures stimulated the secretion of cell filopodia, leading to enhanced biocompatibility in terms of cell attachment, anchoring, and proliferation on the heterostructure surface.
Field of Research
091205 Functional Materials 0904 Chemical Engineering 0303 Macromolecular And Materials Chemistry 0306 Physical Chemistry (Incl. Structural)
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