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Uncoupling EPA and DHA in fish nutrition: dietary demand is limited in atlantic salmon and effectively met by DHA alone

Emery, James A., Norambuena, Fernando, Trushenski, Jesse and Turchini, Giovanni M. 2016, Uncoupling EPA and DHA in fish nutrition: dietary demand is limited in atlantic salmon and effectively met by DHA alone, Lipids, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 399-412, doi: 10.1007/s11745-016-4136-y.

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Title Uncoupling EPA and DHA in fish nutrition: dietary demand is limited in atlantic salmon and effectively met by DHA alone
Author(s) Emery, James A.
Norambuena, Fernando
Trushenski, Jesse
Turchini, Giovanni M.ORCID iD for Turchini, Giovanni M. orcid.org/0000-0003-0694-4283
Journal name Lipids
Volume number 51
Issue number 4
Start page 399
End page 412
Total pages 4
Publisher Springer
Place of publication Berlin, Germany
Publication date 2016-04
ISSN 1558-9307
Keyword(s) 20:5n-3
22:6n-3
Aquaculture
Aquafeed
Docosahexaenoic acid
Eicosapentaenoic acid
Salmonids, tallow
Summary Due to the scarcity of marine fish oil resources, the aquaculture industry is developing more efficient strategies for the utilization of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). A better understanding of how fish utilize EPA and DHA, typically provided by fish oil, is needed. However, EPA and DHA have different physiological functions, may be metabolized and incorporated into tissues differently, and may vary in terms of their importance in meeting the fatty acid requirements of fish. To address these questions, Atlantic salmon were fed experimental diets containing, as the sole added dietary lipid source, fish oil (positive control), tallow (negative control), or tallow supplemented with EPA, DHA, or both fatty acids to ~50 or 100 % of their respective levels in the positive control diet. Following 14 weeks of feeding, the negative control diet yielded optimum growth performance. Though surprising, these results support the notion that Atlantic salmon requirements for n-3 LC-PUFA are quite low. EPA was largely β-oxidized and inefficiently deposited in tissues, and increasing dietary levels were associated with potential negative effects on growth. Conversely, DHA was completely spared from catabolism and very efficiently deposited into flesh. EPA bioconversion to DHA was largely influenced by substrate availability, with the presence of preformed DHA having little inhibitory effect. These results clearly indicate EPA and DHA are metabolized differently by Atlantic salmon, and suggest that the n-3 LC-PUFA dietary requirements of Atlantic salmon may be lower than reported and different, if originating primarily from EPA or DHA.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s11745-016-4136-y
Field of Research 070401 Aquaculture
11 Medical And Health Sciences
07 Agricultural And Veterinary Sciences
09 Engineering
Socio Economic Objective 830102 Aquaculture Fin Fish (excl. Tuna)
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, Springer
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30082914

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