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Assessment of eating rate and food intake in spoon versus fork users in a laboratory setting

Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. and Keast, Russell S. J. 2016, Assessment of eating rate and food intake in spoon versus fork users in a laboratory setting, Food quality and preference, vol. 49, pp. 66-69, doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.11.015.

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Title Assessment of eating rate and food intake in spoon versus fork users in a laboratory setting
Author(s) Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.
Keast, Russell S. J.ORCID iD for Keast, Russell S. J. orcid.org/0000-0003-2147-7687
Journal name Food quality and preference
Volume number 49
Start page 66
End page 69
Total pages 4
Publisher Elsevier
Place of publication Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publication date 2016-04
ISSN 0950-3293
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Food Science & Technology
Cutlery use
Ad libitum food intake
Eating rate
Palatability
Energy density
AD-LIBITUM INTAKE
SALT INTENSITY
ENERGY-INTAKE
BITE SIZE
OBESITY
WOMEN
PREFERENCE
BEHAVIOR
WEIGHT
Summary Accumulating evidence show positive relationships between eating rate and body weight. Acute food intake is affected by eating rate, bite size, and palatability. The objective was to assess differences between participants who chose to use a spoon vs. fork in eating rate and food intake of four meals that differ in palatability (low vs. high salt) and in energy density (low vs. high fat). Forty-eight healthy adults (16 males, 18-54 y, BMI: 17.8-34.4 kg/m2) were recruited. Participants attended four lunch time sessions after a standardised breakfast. Meals were either (1) low-fat/low-salt, (2) low-fat/high-salt, (3) high-fat/low-salt, or (4) high-fat/high-salt. Nineteen participants (6 males) consistently used a fork and 21 (8 males) used a spoon, 8 participants were inconsistent in cutlery use and excluded from analyses. Spoon users had on average a higher BMI than fork users (p=0.006). Effects of cutlery use, BMI status (BMI<25 vs. BMI>25), salt, and fat, and their interactions were assessed in a General Linear Model. Spoon users consumed faster (fork: 53±2.8g/min; spoon: 62±2.1g/min, p=0.022) and tended to consume more (p=0.09), whereas the duration of the meals were similar (fork: 6.9±0.3min; spoon: 6:7±0.2min, p=0.55). BMI status affected both eating rate and food intake (p=0.005). There were no significant two-way or three-way interactions between salt, fat, and cutlery use on eating rate or food intake. In conclusion, participants who chose to consume with forks ate slower compared to spoon users.
Language eng
DOI 10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.11.015
Field of Research 0908 Food Sciences
1505 Marketing
Socio Economic Objective 920411 Nutrition
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2015, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30083372

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.