Brain development during adolescence: A mixed-longitudinal investigation of cortical thickness, surface area, and volume.

Vijayakumar, Nandita, Allen, Nicholas B, Youssef, George, Dennison, Meg, Yücel, Murat, Simmons, Julian G and Whittle, Sarah 2016, Brain development during adolescence: A mixed-longitudinal investigation of cortical thickness, surface area, and volume., Human brain mapping, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 2027-2038, doi: 10.1002/hbm.23154.

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Title Brain development during adolescence: A mixed-longitudinal investigation of cortical thickness, surface area, and volume.
Author(s) Vijayakumar, Nandita
Allen, Nicholas B
Youssef, GeorgeORCID iD for Youssef, George
Dennison, Meg
Yücel, Murat
Simmons, Julian G
Whittle, Sarah
Journal name Human brain mapping
Volume number 37
Issue number 6
Start page 2027
End page 2038
Total pages 12
Publisher Wiley
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2016-06
ISSN 1097-0193
Keyword(s) brain structure
cortical development
sex differences
Summary What we know about cortical development during adolescence largely stems from analyses of cross-sectional or cohort-sequential samples, with few studies investigating brain development using a longitudinal design. Further, cortical volume is a product of two evolutionarily and genetically distinct features of the cortex - thickness and surface area, and few studies have investigated development of these three characteristics within the same sample. The current study examined maturation of cortical thickness, surface area and volume during adolescence, as well as sex differences in development, using a mixed longitudinal design. 192 MRI scans were obtained from 90 healthy (i.e., free from lifetime psychopathology) adolescents (11-20 years) at three time points (with different MRI scanners used at time 1 compared to 2 and 3). Developmental trajectories were estimated using linear mixed models. Non-linear increases were present across most of the cortex for surface area. In comparison, thickness and volume were both characterised by a combination of non-linear decreasing and increasing trajectories. While sex differences in volume and surface area were observed across time, no differences in thickness were identified. Furthermore, few regions exhibited sex differences in the cortical development. Our findings clearly illustrate that volume is a product of surface area and thickness, with each exhibiting differential patterns of development during adolescence, particularly in regions known to contribute to the development of social-cognition and behavioral regulation. These findings suggest that thickness and surface area may be driven by different underlying mechanisms, with each measure potentially providing independent information about brain development. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Language eng
DOI 10.1002/hbm.23154
Field of Research 110999 Neurosciences not elsewhere classified
1702 Cognitive Science
Socio Economic Objective 929999 Health not elsewhere classified
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, Wiley
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Psychology
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