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A multiple case history and systematic review of adoption, diffusion, implementation and impact of provincial daily physical activity policies in Canadian schools

Olstad, Dana Lee, Campbell, Elizabeth J., Raine, Kim D. and Nykiforuk, Candace I. J. 2015, A multiple case history and systematic review of adoption, diffusion, implementation and impact of provincial daily physical activity policies in Canadian schools, BMC public health, vol. 15, Article number: 385, pp. 1-25, doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1669-6.

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Title A multiple case history and systematic review of adoption, diffusion, implementation and impact of provincial daily physical activity policies in Canadian schools
Author(s) Olstad, Dana Lee
Campbell, Elizabeth J.
Raine, Kim D.
Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.
Journal name BMC public health
Volume number 15
Season Article number: 385
Start page 1
End page 25
Total pages 25
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2015
ISSN 1471-2458
Keyword(s) physical activity
policy
diffusion
adoption
implementation
impact
systematic review
children
Summary BACKGROUND : Few children meet physical activity (PA) recommendations, and are therefore at increased risk for overweight/obesity and adverse health outcomes. To increase children's opportunities for PA, several Canadian provinces have adopted school-based daily PA (DPA) policies. It is not clear why some jurisdictions have adopted DPA policies, and others have not, nor whether these policies have been implemented and have achieved their intended outcomes. The purpose of this study was to understand the processes underlying adoption and diffusion of Canadian DPA policies, and to review evidence regarding their implementation and impact.

METHODS: We adopted a multiple case history methodology in which we traced the chronological trajectory of DPA policies among Canadian provinces by compiling timelines detailing key historical events that preceded policy adoption. Publicly available documents posted on the internet were reviewed to characterize adopter innovativeness, describe the content of their DPA policies, and explore the context surrounding policy adoption. Diffusion of Innovations theory provided a conceptual framework for the analyses. A systematic literature search identified studies that had investigated adoption, diffusion, implementation or impact of Canadian DPA policies.

RESULTS: Five of Canada's 13 provinces and territories (38.5%) have DPA policies. Although the underlying objectives of the policies are similar, there are clear differences among them and in their various policy trajectories. Adoption and diffusion of DPA policies were structured by the characteristics and capacities of adopters, the nature of their policies, and contextual factors. Limited data suggests implementation of DPA policies was moderate but inconsistent and that Canadian DPA policies have had little to no impact on school-aged children's PA levels or BMI.

CONCLUSIONS: This study detailed the history and current status of Canadian DPA policies, highlighting the conditional nature of policy adoption and diffusion, and describing policy and adopter characteristics and political contexts that shaped policy trajectories. An understanding of the conditions associated with successful policy adoption and diffusion can help identify receptive contexts in which to pioneer novel legislative initiatives to increase PA among children. By reviewing evidence regarding policy implementation and impact, this study can also inform amendments to existing, and development of future PA policies.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1669-6
Field of Research 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
1117 Public Health And Health Services
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2015, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30085442

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.