Induced alkalosis and gastrointestinal symptoms after sodium citrate ingestion: a dose-response investigation

Urwin, Charles S., Dwyer, Dan B. and Carr, Amelia J. 2016, Induced alkalosis and gastrointestinal symptoms after sodium citrate ingestion: a dose-response investigation, International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 542-548, doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0336.

Attached Files
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads

Title Induced alkalosis and gastrointestinal symptoms after sodium citrate ingestion: a dose-response investigation
Author(s) Urwin, Charles S.
Dwyer, Dan B.ORCID iD for Dwyer, Dan B.
Carr, Amelia J.ORCID iD for Carr, Amelia J.
Journal name International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism
Volume number 26
Issue number 6
Start page 542
End page 548
Total pages 7
Publisher Human Kinetics
Place of publication Champaign, Ill.
Publication date 2016-12
ISSN 1543-2742
Keyword(s) buffering agents
ingestion protocol
Summary Sodium citrate induces alkalosis and can provide a performance benefit in high-intensity exercise. Previous investigations have been inconsistent in the ingestion protocols used, in particular the dose and timing of ingestion before the onset of exercise. The primary aim of the current study was to quantify blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration and gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of three doses of sodium citrate (500 mg⋅kg(-1), 700 mg⋅kg(-1) and 900 mg⋅kg(-1)). Thirteen participants completed four experimental sessions, each consisting of a different dose of sodium citrate or a taste-matched placebo solution. Blood pH and blood bicarbonate concentration were measured at 30-min intervals via analysis of capillary blood samples. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also monitored at 30-min intervals. Statistical significance was accepted at a level of p < .05. Both measures of alkalosis were significantly greater after ingestion of sodium citrate compared with placebo (p < .001). No significant differences in alkalosis were found between the three sodium citrate doses (p > .05). Peak alkalosis following sodium citrate ingestion ranged from 180 to 212 min after ingestion. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher after sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo (p < .001), while the 900 dose elicited significantly greater gastrointestinal distress than 500 mg⋅kg(-1) (p = .004). It is recommended that a dose of 500 mg⋅kg(-1) of sodium citrate should be ingested at least 3 hr before exercise, to achieve peak alkalosis and to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms before and during exercise.
Language eng
DOI 10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0336
Field of Research 110602 Exercise Physiology
1106 Human Movement And Sports Science
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, Human Kinetics
Persistent URL

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
Connect to link resolver
Unless expressly stated otherwise, the copyright for items in DRO is owned by the author, with all rights reserved.

Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 5 times in TR Web of Science
Scopus Citation Count Cited 3 times in Scopus
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Access Statistics: 350 Abstract Views, 2 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
Created: Fri, 20 Jan 2017, 08:08:57 EST

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact