Coupling of online control and inhibitory systems in children with atypical motor development: a growth curve modelling study

Ruddock, Scott, Caeyenberghs, Karen, Piek, Jan, Sugden, David, Hyde, Christian, Morris, Sue, Rigoli, Daniela, Steenbergen, Bert and Wilson, Peter 2016, Coupling of online control and inhibitory systems in children with atypical motor development: a growth curve modelling study, Brain and cognition, vol. 109, pp. 84-95, doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.08.001.

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Title Coupling of online control and inhibitory systems in children with atypical motor development: a growth curve modelling study
Author(s) Ruddock, Scott
Caeyenberghs, Karen
Piek, Jan
Sugden, David
Hyde, ChristianORCID iD for Hyde, Christian
Morris, Sue
Rigoli, Daniela
Steenbergen, Bert
Wilson, Peter
Journal name Brain and cognition
Volume number 109
Start page 84
End page 95
Total pages 12
Publisher Elsevier
Place of publication Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publication date 2016-11
ISSN 1090-2147
Keyword(s) Cohort sequential design
Developmental coordination disorder
Executive control
Growth curve modelling
Inhibitory control
Online control
Predictive modelling
Science & Technology
Social Sciences
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Psychology, Experimental
Neurosciences & Neurology
Summary INTRODUCTION: Previous research indicates that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show deficits performing online corrections, an issue exacerbated by adding inhibitory constraints; however, cross-sectional data suggests that these deficits may reduce with age. Using a longitudinal design, the aim of the study presented here was to model the coupling that occurs between inhibitory systems and (predictive) online control in typically developing children (TDC) and in those with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) over an extended period of time, using a framework of interactive specialization. We predicted that TDC would show a non-linear growth pattern, consistent with re-organisation in the coupling during the middle childhood period, while DCD would display a developmental lag.

METHOD: A group of 196 children (111 girls and 85 boys) aged between 6 and 12years participated in the study. Children were classified as DCD according to research criteria. Using a cohort sequential design, both TDC and DCD groups were divided into age cohorts. Predictive (online) control was defined operationally by performance on a Double-Jump Reaching Task (DJRT), which was assessed at 6-month intervals over two years (5 time points in total). Inhibitory control was examined using an anti-jump condition of the DJRT paradigm whereby children were instructed to touch a target location in the hemispace opposite a cued location.

RESULTS: For the TDC group, model comparison using growth curve analysis revealed that a quadratic trend was the most appropriate fit with evidence of rapid improvement in anti-reach performance up until middle childhood (around 8-9years of age), followed by a more gradual rate of improvement into late childhood and early adolescence. This pattern was evident on both chronometric and kinematic measures. In contrast, for children with DCD, a linear function provided the best to fit on the key metrics, with a slower rate of improvement than controls.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that children with DCD require a more extended period of development to effectively couple online motor control and executive systems when completing anti-reach movements, whereas TDC show rapid improvement in early and middle childhood. These group differences in growth curves are likely to reflect a maturational lag in the development of motor-cognitive networks in children with DCD.
Language eng
DOI 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.08.001
Field of Research 170205 Neurocognitive Patterns and Neural Networks
1109 Neurosciences
1701 Psychology
1702 Cognitive Science
Socio Economic Objective 970117 Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, Elsevier
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Psychology
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