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Recruitment of older adults with type 2 diabetes into a community-based exercise and nutrition randomised controlled trial

Miller, Eliza G., Nowson, Caryl A., Dunstan, David W., Kerr, Deborah A., Solah, Vicky, Menzies, David and Daly, Robin M. 2016, Recruitment of older adults with type 2 diabetes into a community-based exercise and nutrition randomised controlled trial, Trials, vol. 17, Article Number : 467, pp. 1-12, doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1589-5.

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Title Recruitment of older adults with type 2 diabetes into a community-based exercise and nutrition randomised controlled trial
Author(s) Miller, Eliza G.
Nowson, Caryl A.ORCID iD for Nowson, Caryl A. orcid.org/0000-0001-6586-7965
Dunstan, David W.
Kerr, Deborah A.
Solah, Vicky
Menzies, David
Daly, Robin M.ORCID iD for Daly, Robin M. orcid.org/0000-0002-9897-1598
Journal name Trials
Volume number 17
Season Article Number : 467
Start page 1
End page 12
Total pages 12
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2016
ISSN 1745-6215
Keyword(s) Exercise
Nutritional supplementation
Older adults
Randomised controlled trial
Recruitment strategies
Type 2 diabetes
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Medicine, Research & Experimental
Research & Experimental Medicine
PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
BREAST-CANCER
POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
PEOPLE
RISK
INTERVENTION
SEDENTARY
PROTOCOL
PROGRAM
Summary BACKGROUND: Recruitment of participants into long-term community-based lifestyle intervention trials, particularly adults with a chronic disease, is often slow and challenging. Currently there is limited data on successful recruitment strategies suitable for older adults with type 2 diabetes into community-based exercise and nutrition programs, and no information on cost estimates associated with such recruitment. The aim of this report is to describe the recruitment strategies used and the success of each approach in recruiting older adults with type 2 diabetes into a 6-month community-based exercise and nutritional supplementation randomised controlled trial (RCT). A secondary aim is to assess the costs associated with the recruitment methods used.

METHODS: The Resistance Exercise, Vitamin D and Muscle Protein Intervention Trial (REVAMP-IT) for type 2 diabetes is a 24-week RCT targeting 202 adults with type 2 diabetes which is designed to evaluate whether post-exercise ingestion of a whey- protein and vitamin D-enriched drink can enhance the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) on glycaemic control, body composition and cardiometabolic health. Participants in this trial were randomly allocated to either: (1) the Lift for Life® community-based PRT program combined with additional whey protein and vitamin D, or (2) the Lift for Life® PRT program alone. Recruitment strategies included state and local newspaper and radio advertisements, targeted mail-outs, doctor and allied health referrals, community presentations, web-based media and word of mouth. The number of expressions of interest, participants screened and included in the trial, and how they first heard about the study were recorded by research staff during the screening process. Reasons for ineligibility or non-participation in the trial were also recorded as was the cost of each recruitment method used.

RESULTS: A total of 1157 expressions of interest were received over a 21-month recruitment period. Overall 959 (83 %) individuals were screened and found to be ineligible for the trial or chose not to participate or could not be contacted further following their initial enquiry. As a result, 198 participants were randomised to the 24-week intervention. The most effective recruitment strategies were targeted mass mail-outs (39 % of the total participant sample), state (27 %) and local (14 %) print media. In total recruitment expenditure was AUD$40,421, which equated to AUD$35 per enquiry and AUD$204 per eligible participant. Targeted mail-outs and state print media were the most expensive strategies each accounting for 38 % of total expenditure.

CONCLUSIONS: To recruit around 200 older adults with type 2 diabetes into a community-based lifestyle intervention trial in a timely manner, it is important to ensure that an adequate budget is allocated to recruitment as targeted mail-outs and state/local print media were the most costly but effective strategies.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference ACTRN12613000592741 . Registered on 27 May 2013.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/s13063-016-1589-5
Field of Research 111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
1102 Cardiovascular Medicine And Haematology
1103 Clinical Sciences
Socio Economic Objective 920104 Diabetes
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30089234

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.