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Reliable quantification of the potential for equations based on spot urine samples to estimate population salt intake: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Huang, Liping, Crino, Michelle, Wu, Jason HY, Woodward, Mark, Land, Mary-Anne, McLean, Rachael, Webster, Jacqui, Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan, Nowson, Caryl A, Elliott, Paul, Cogswell, Mary, Toft, Ulla, Mill, Jose G, Furlanetto, Tania W, Ilich, Jasminka Z, Hong, Yet Hoi, Cohall, Damian, Luzardo, Leonella, Noboa, Oscar, Holm, Ellen, Gerbes, Alexander L, Senousy, Bahaa, Pinar Kara, Sonat, Brewster, Lizzy M, Ueshima, Hirotsugu, Subramanian, Srinivas, Teo, Boon Wee, Allen, Norrina, Choudhury, Sohel Reza, Polonia, Jorge, Yasuda, Yoshinari, Campbell, Norm RC, Neal, Bruce and Petersen, Kristina S 2016, Reliable quantification of the potential for equations based on spot urine samples to estimate population salt intake: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis, JMIR research protocols, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1-10, doi: 10.2196/resprot.6282.

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Title Reliable quantification of the potential for equations based on spot urine samples to estimate population salt intake: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
Author(s) Huang, Liping
Crino, Michelle
Wu, Jason HY
Woodward, Mark
Land, Mary-Anne
McLean, Rachael
Webster, Jacqui
Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan
Nowson, Caryl AORCID iD for Nowson, Caryl A orcid.org/0000-0001-6586-7965
Elliott, Paul
Cogswell, Mary
Toft, Ulla
Mill, Jose G
Furlanetto, Tania W
Ilich, Jasminka Z
Hong, Yet Hoi
Cohall, Damian
Luzardo, Leonella
Noboa, Oscar
Holm, Ellen
Gerbes, Alexander L
Senousy, Bahaa
Pinar Kara, Sonat
Brewster, Lizzy M
Ueshima, Hirotsugu
Subramanian, Srinivas
Teo, Boon Wee
Allen, Norrina
Choudhury, Sohel Reza
Polonia, Jorge
Yasuda, Yoshinari
Campbell, Norm RC
Neal, Bruce
Petersen, Kristina S
Journal name JMIR research protocols
Volume number 5
Issue number 3
Article ID e190
Start page 1
End page 10
Total pages 10
Publisher JMIR Publications
Place of publication Toronto, Ont.
Publication date 2016
ISSN 1929-0748
1929-0748
Keyword(s) dietary salt
sodium
spot urine collection
24-hour urine collection
meta-analysis
systematic review
Summary Background: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possiblealternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake.Objective: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean population salt intake from spot urinesamples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derivedfrom 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, healthstatus, and timing of spot urine collection will be explored. The capacity of spot urine samples to measure change in salt intakeover time will also be determined. Finally, we aim to develop a novel equation (or equations) that performs better than existingequations to estimate mean population salt intake.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data will be conducted. A search has been conductedto identify human studies that report salt (or sodium) excretion based upon 24-hour urine samples and spot urine samples. Therewere no restrictions on language, study sample size, or characteristics of the study population. MEDLINE via OvidSP (1946-present),Premedline via OvidSP, EMBASE, Global Health via OvidSP (1910-present), and the Cochrane Library were searched, and tworeviewers identified eligible studies. The authors of these studies will be invited to contribute data according to a standard format.Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations forestimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according tokey demographic and clinical characteristics; (2) assess the reliability of using spot urine samples to measure population changesin salt intake overtime; and (3) develop a novel equation that performs better than existing equations to estimate mean populationsalt intake.

Results: The search strategy identified 538 records; 100 records were obtained for review in full text and 73 have been confirmedas eligible. In addition, 68 abstracts were identified, some of which may contain data eligible for inclusion. Individual participantdata will be requested from the authors of eligible studies.

Conclusions:
Many equations for estimating salt intake from spot urine samples have been developed and validated, althoughmost have been studied in very specific settings. This meta-analysis of individual participant data will enable a much broaderunderstanding of the capacity for spot urine samples to estimate population salt intake.
Language eng
DOI 10.2196/resprot.6282
Field of Research 0 Not Applicable
Socio Economic Objective 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, Huang et al
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30089969

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.