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In-situ-activated N-doped mesoporous carbon from a protic salt and its performance in supercapacitors

Mendes, Tiago C, Xiao, Changlong, Zhou, Fengling, Li, Haitao, Knowles, Gregory P, Hilder, Matthias, Somers, Anthony, Howlett, Patrick C and MacFarlane, Douglas R 2016, In-situ-activated N-doped mesoporous carbon from a protic salt and its performance in supercapacitors, ACS applied materials and interfaces, vol. 8, no. 51, pp. 35243-35252, doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b11716.

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Title In-situ-activated N-doped mesoporous carbon from a protic salt and its performance in supercapacitors
Author(s) Mendes, Tiago C
Xiao, Changlong
Zhou, Fengling
Li, Haitao
Knowles, Gregory P
Hilder, Matthias
Somers, Anthony
Howlett, Patrick CORCID iD for Howlett, Patrick C orcid.org/0000-0002-2151-2932
MacFarlane, Douglas R
Journal name ACS applied materials and interfaces
Volume number 8
Issue number 51
Start page 35243
End page 35252
Total pages 10
Publisher American Chemical Society
Place of publication Washington, D.C.
Publication date 2016
ISSN 1944-8244
1944-8252
Keyword(s) N-doped carbon
citrate salts
mesoporous carbon
one-step calcination
protic salts
symmetric supercapacitors
Science & Technology
Technology
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
Science & Technology - Other Topics
Materials Science
DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS
POROUS CARBON
OXYGEN REDUCTION
ENERGY-STORAGE
ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS
ELECTRODE MATERIALS
TEMPLATE SYNTHESIS
IONIC LIQUIDS
PRECURSOR
ADSORPTION
Summary Protic salts have been recently recognized to be an excellent carbon source to obtain highly ordered N-doped carbon without the need of tedious and time-consuming preparation steps that are usually involved in traditional polymer-based precursors. Herein, we report a direct co-pyrolysis of an easily synthesized protic salt (benzimidazolium triflate) with calcium and sodium citrate at 850 °C to obtain N-doped mesoporous carbons from a single calcination procedure. It was found that sodium citrate plays a role in the final carbon porosity and acts as an in situ activator. This results in a large surface area as high as 1738 m(2)/g with a homogeneous pore size distribution and a moderate nitrogen doping level of 3.1%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed that graphitic and pyridinic groups are the main nitrogen species present in the material, and their content depends on the amount of sodium citrate used during pyrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation showed that sodium citrate assists the formation of graphitic domains and many carbon nanosheets were observed. When applied as supercapacitor electrodes, a specific capacitance of 111 F/g in organic electrolyte was obtained and an excellent capacitance retention of 85.9% was observed at a current density of 10 A/g. At an operating voltage of 3.0 V, the device provided a maximum energy density of 35 W h/kg and a maximum power density of 12 kW/kg.
Language eng
DOI 10.1021/acsami.6b11716
Field of Research 030604 Electrochemistry
030399 Macromolecular and Materials Chemistry not elsewhere classified
0904 Chemical Engineering
0303 Macromolecular And Materials Chemistry
0306 Physical Chemistry (Incl. Structural)
Socio Economic Objective 850602 Energy Storage (excl. Hydrogen)
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2016, American Chemical Society
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30090320

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Institute for Frontier Materials
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