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Early risk and protective factors for problem gambling: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

Dowling, NA, Merkouris, SS, Greenwood, CJ, Oldenhof, E, Toumbourou, JW and Youssef, GJ 2017, Early risk and protective factors for problem gambling: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies, Clinical psychology review, vol. 51, pp. 109-124, doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.008.

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Title Early risk and protective factors for problem gambling: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
Author(s) Dowling, NAORCID iD for Dowling, NA
Merkouris, SSORCID iD for Merkouris, SS
Greenwood, CJ
Oldenhof, E
Toumbourou, JWORCID iD for Toumbourou, JW
Youssef, GJORCID iD for Youssef, GJ
Journal name Clinical psychology review
Volume number 51
Start page 109
End page 124
Total pages 16
Publisher Elsevier
Place of publication Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publication date 2017-02
ISSN 1873-7811
Keyword(s) Gambling
Longitudinal studies
Protective factors
Risk factors
Systematic review
Summary This systematic review aimed to identify early risk and protective factors (in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood) longitudinally associated with the subsequent development of gambling problems. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1990 to 2015 identified 15 studies published in 23 articles. Meta-analyses quantified the effect size of 13 individual risk factors (alcohol use frequency, antisocial behaviours, depression, male gender, cannabis use, illicit drug use, impulsivity, number of gambling activities, problem gambling severity, sensation seeking, tobacco use, violence, undercontrolled temperament), one relationship risk factor (peer antisocial behaviours), one community risk factor (poor academic performance), one individual protective factor (socio-economic status) and two relationship protective factors (parent supervision, social problems). Effect sizes were on average small to medium and sensitivity analyses revealed that the results were generally robust to the quality of methodological approaches of the included articles. These findings highlight the need for global prevention efforts that reduce risk factors and screen young people with high-risk profiles. There is insufficient investigation of protective factors to adequately guide prevention initiatives. Future longitudinal research is required to identify additional risk and protective factors associated with problem gambling, particularly within the relationship, community, and societal levels of the socio-ecological model.
Language eng
DOI 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.008
Field of Research 170199 Psychology not elsewhere classified
1701 Psychology
Socio Economic Objective 920401 Behaviour and Health
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, Elsevier
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Document type: Journal Article
Collection: School of Psychology
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Created: Mon, 16 Jan 2017, 15:32:59 EST

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