The increasing consideration of behavioral aspects in operations management models has prompted greater use of choice-based conjoint (CBC) studies in operations research. Such studies can elicit consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP), a core input for many optimization models. However, optimization models can yield valid results only if consumers’ WTP is estimated accurately. A simulation study and two field studies show that extreme response behavior in CBC studies, such that consumers always or never choose the no-purchase option, harms the validity of WTP estimates. Reporting the share of consumers who always and never select the no-purchase option allows for detecting extreme response behavior. This study suggests an individually adapted design that avoids extreme response behavior and thus significantly improves WTP estimation accuracy.
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