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The gut-brain axis, including the microbiome, leaky gut and bacterial translocation: mechanisms and pathophysiological role in alzheimer’s disease

Köhler, Cristiano A., Maes, Michael, Slyepchenko, Anastasiya, Berk, Michael, Solmi, Marco, Lanctôt, Krista L. and Carvalho, André F. 2016, The gut-brain axis, including the microbiome, leaky gut and bacterial translocation: mechanisms and pathophysiological role in alzheimer’s disease, Current pharmaceutical design, vol. 22, no. 40, pp. 6152-6166, doi: 10.2174/1381612822666160907093807.

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Title The gut-brain axis, including the microbiome, leaky gut and bacterial translocation: mechanisms and pathophysiological role in alzheimer’s disease
Author(s) Köhler, Cristiano A.
Maes, Michael
Slyepchenko, Anastasiya
Berk, MichaelORCID iD for Berk, Michael orcid.org/0000-0002-5554-6946
Solmi, Marco
Lanctôt, Krista L.
Carvalho, André F.
Journal name Current pharmaceutical design
Volume number 22
Issue number 40
Start page 6152
End page 6166
Total pages 15
Publisher Bentham Science Publishers
Place of publication Bussum, Netherlands
Publication date 2016-01
ISSN 1381-6128
1873-4286
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Pharmacology & Pharmacy
Alzheimer's disease
amyloid beta
gut
microbiota
aging
dementia
gut-brain axis
psychiatry
neurology
MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
PAIRED HELICAL FILAMENTS
PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A
DIET-INDUCED OBESITY
TOLL-LIKE-RECEPTORS
NF-KAPPA-B
AMYOTROPHIC-LATERAL-SCLEROSIS
GRAM-NEGATIVE ENTEROBACTERIA
TIGHT JUNCTION PERMEABILITY
DOMAIN-CONTAINING ADAPTER
Summary Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive disorder manifested by gradual memory loss and subsequent impairment in mental and behavioral functions. Though the primary risk factor for AD is advancing age, other factors such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, vascular factors and depression play a role in its pathogenesis. The human gastrointestinal tract has a diverse commensal microbial population, which has bidirectional interactions with the human host that are symbiotic in health, and in addition to nutrition, digestion, plays major roles in inflammation and immunity. The most prevalent hypothesis for AD is the amyloid hypothesis, which states that changes in the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein leads to the accumulation of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide. Aβ then triggers an immune response that drives neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in AD. The specific role of gut microbiota in modulating neuro-immune functions well beyond the gastrointestinal tract may constitute an important influence on the process of neurodegeneration. We first review the main mechanisms involved in AD physiopathology. Then, we review the alterations in gut microbiota and gut-brain axis that might be relevant to mediate or otherwise affect AD pathogenesis, especially those associated with aging. We finally summarize possible mechanisms that could mediate the involvement of gut-brain axis in AD physiopathology, and propose an integrative model.
Language eng
DOI 10.2174/1381612822666160907093807
Field of Research 110319 Psychiatry (incl Psychotherapy)
1115 Pharmacology And Pharmaceutical Sciences
Socio Economic Objective 920410 Mental Health
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, Bentham Science Publishers
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30091233

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Medicine
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