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Impact of shrimp farm effluent on water quality in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay

Bui, Thuyet D., Luong-Van, Jim and Austin, Chris M. 2012, Impact of shrimp farm effluent on water quality in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay, American journal of environmental sciences, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 104-116, doi: 10.3844/ajessp.2012.104.116.

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Title Impact of shrimp farm effluent on water quality in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay
Author(s) Bui, Thuyet D.
Luong-Van, Jim
Austin, Chris M.ORCID iD for Austin, Chris M. orcid.org/0000-0003-1848-6267
Journal name American journal of environmental sciences
Volume number 8
Issue number 2
Start page 104
End page 116
Total pages 13
Publisher Science Publications
Place of publication Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Publication date 2012
ISSN 1553-345X
1558-3910
Keyword(s) nutrient waste
eutrophication
principal component analysis (PCA)
Summary Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC) and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF). Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N), Total Phosphorus (TP), Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were determined using standard methods. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable and if the highly valued marine ecosystem of Ha Long Bay is to be protected for the future.
Language eng
DOI 10.3844/ajessp.2012.104.116
Field of Research 050204 Environmental Impact Assessment
Socio Economic Objective 970105 Expanding Knowledge in the Environmental Sciences
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2012, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30091335

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Life and Environmental Sciences
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.