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Effects over time of self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and loneliness among Australian school students

Priest, Naomi, Perry, Ryan, Ferdinand, Angeline, Kelaher, Margaret and Paradies, Yin 2017, Effects over time of self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and loneliness among Australian school students, BMC psychiatry, vol. 17, pp. 1-11, doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1216-3.

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Title Effects over time of self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and loneliness among Australian school students
Author(s) Priest, Naomi
Perry, Ryan
Ferdinand, Angeline
Kelaher, Margaret
Paradies, YinORCID iD for Paradies, Yin orcid.org/0000-0001-9927-7074
Journal name BMC psychiatry
Volume number 17
Article ID 50
Start page 1
End page 11
Total pages 11
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2017-02-03
ISSN 1471-244X
Keyword(s) racial discrimination
mental health
depression
loneliness
school
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Psychiatry
AFRICAN-AMERICAN PARENTS
MENTAL-HEALTH
PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION
ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION
PROTECTIVE FACTORS
FUTURE-DIRECTIONS
AGED CHILDREN
EXPERIENCES
ADOLESCENTS
VICTIMIZATION
Summary BACKGROUND: Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students.

METHODS: Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points.

RESULTS: A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination.

CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/s12888-017-1216-3
Field of Research 1103 Clinical Sciences
Socio Economic Objective 0 Not Applicable
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2017, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30091705

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Alfred Deakin Research Institute
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.